The laser rangefinder is passed through a sensor (LIDAR)
Active remote sensing technology for measuring the distance between the sensor and the target by the emitted laser.
According to the different detection targets, this technology can be divided into two types: air detection and ground detection.
Laser ranging in the air aims to complete the determination of atmospheric physical and chemical properties by emitting laser beams into the air and receiving echoes reflected by suspended particles in the air.
The main goal of ground laser ranging is to obtain surface information such as geology, topography, geomorphology and land use.
According to the classification of the sensor carrying platform, laser ranging can be divided into satellite (Satellite carrying), Airborne (Aircraft carrying), Vehicle (Car carrying)And positioning (Fixed point measurement)Four categories.
Laser ranging technology began in 1960s S. By 70 or 80 s, laser technology had become an important part of electronic ranging equipment. LIDAR (
Light Detection And Ranging)
It usually refers to the airborne laser ranging technology to the ground, and the Chinese term LIDAR is often used to refer to LIDAR.
In the United States, since 1970s, including the US Air China Space Agency (NASA), US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)And the US Department of Defense surveying and mapping (DMA)
A number of institutions have begun to develop LIDAR sensors for ocean and terrain measurement.
In Europe, the relevant research on laser ranging started almost at the same time as that of the United States. Unlike the United States, they are committed to developing the laser ranging radar system on the satellite platform, more attention has been paid to the development and research of airborne platforms and their matching lidar systems, and considerable success has been achieved.
By the 1990s S, with the development of airborne GPS technology and portable computer system, the stability and accuracy of LIDAR system had been greatly improved, and gradually began to be put into commercial use in Europe, the related applied research also took the lead in Europe.
Compared with other remote sensing technologies, LIDAR related research is a very new field, which is quite active in improving LIDAR data accuracy and quality or enriching LIDAR data application technology.
Different from remote sensing image technology, LIDAR system can quickly acquire the surface and corresponding surface features (Trees, buildings, surface, etc)
Its three-dimensional characteristics meet the mainstream research needs of today's digital Earth.
With the continuous progress of LIDAR sensors, the gradual increase of the density of Surface Mining points and the increase of the number of waves that can be recovered by a single laser, LIDAR data will provide more abundant information of surface and ground objects.
Filtering, interpolation, classification, segmentation and other processing of the surface three-dimensional point set collected by LIDAR can obtain all kinds of high-precision three-dimensional digital ground models, it can also classify and identify surface features and realize three-dimensional digital reconstruction of surface features such as trees and buildings, and even draw three-dimensional forest and three-dimensional city models to build virtual reality.
On the basis of virtual reality, a more refined analysis of ground objects can be carried out to estimate the parameters of forest land and its individual standing trees, thus realizing the management of fine forestry and agriculture;
It can simulate and analyze urban planning, urban environment and urban climate to realize the evaluation and control of sound, light and environmental pollution.
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