study guide for basic paver installation (section 2 of 5, base design & installation factors) - best laser line level

by:UMeasure     2019-08-25
study guide for basic paver installation (section 2 of 5, base design & installation factors)  -  best laser line level
1 before starting the basic installation, you need to confirm the elevation/slope on the project.
As described in section 1, it is better to mark the elevation on the grade pile that has been determined.
Most contractors in the industry will use a transport or laser level to determine their elevation/grade.
However, some contractors may rely on string lines and line heights when setting their levels/grades.
The elevation you mark should indicate your finished gravel base level as well as your bedding sand level and finished paving level.
Remember to also include the slope/positive spacing of the drainage.
Most slopes/positive distances should fall within the minimum range of 1%-1. 5%. (
Example: the vertical drop in the 10 feet run is 1 "-1. 5" ).
Also, make sure your slope/slope flows out of any structure.
Connecting from one grade pile to another to help maintain altitude can be good for you. 2.
2 Municipal, urban, state or provincial base materials and modified base materials commonly used for flexible asphalt pavement are acceptable for interlocking concrete paving.
For proper drainage and compaction, the base aggregate should contain a variety of particle sizes.
Most aggregation suppliers should be able to provide you with the appropriate sieve size of the granular substrate used in the project.
When environmental conditions, traffic loads and severe sub-grade conditions exist, improved basic materials should be expected.
Your granular base material can be reinforced with other materials such as cement or asphalt to ensure a stronger pavement base as a whole.
A small amount of cement or asphalt mixed with the granular base layer will harden after installation.
In general, modified substrates are used in commercial and industrial applications.
Section 2: Basic design and installation plant.
The correct installation of the base layer thickness of the 3 factors particle base layer is usually the most neglected step in the road surface installation.
The grain base is the foundation of the whole paving installation.
Without properly installed and compacted gravel foundations, the project is likely to fail over time.
In general, the thickness of the substrate is determined by traffic load, drainage, moisture, soil type, soil strength and climate.
Road use is usually divided into four categories. 1. )Pedestrian (
Sidewalks and terraces)2. )Residential (driveways)3. )Commercial (
City parking and streets)4. )Industrial (
Terminal, port, container terminal, bus terminal, airport station application)
The basic aggregate requirements for each of the above pavement applications are listed below.
It is important to note that you should never install the frozen base material, nor should you install the base material on the frozen soil sub-grade.
If this is done, the road surface may be damaged in the future. Pedestrian -
In well-drained soil, the minimum base thickness for sidewalks, patios and pedestrian areas should be 4.
In the northern climate of many freeze/thaw cycles, the minimum base thickness for pedestrian applications should be 6 In. Residential -
In well-drained soil, the minimum base thickness of the lane should be 6.
In the northern climate of many freeze/thaw cycles, the minimum base thickness of the residential lane should be 9 In. Commercial-
In well-drained soil, the minimum base thickness of the municipal parking lot and street should be 6.
In the northern climate of many freeze/thaw cycles, the minimum substrate thickness can be from 9 In-12 in.
Civil engineers can also determine the appropriate Foundation thickness required for the project. Industrial -
In industrial and heavy duty applications, it is better to consult or hire a qualified civil engineer who is familiar with the local soil and traffic conditions so that they can determine the appropriate base thickness.
Section 2: Basic design and installation plant.
It is very important to drain and Frost all moisture from the grain base.
It is best to install any channel drain, catch pool or any type of drainage attachment before installing the pellet base.
Be sure to grade the website correctly before installing the pellet base.
In most parts of North America, you will encounter frost penetration in pavement applications.
When designing the pavers project, the role of frost must be considered.
The Frost-setting action usually has the following features: during freezing, the paving will create ups and downs due to water expansion in the granular substrate.
Due to the thawing of the frozen granular substrate, the strength of the material is reduced.
It is also best to have a basic understanding of the soil susceptible to frost.
Soil with slight frost is usually soil containing gravel, sand and clay.
The soil with a large degree of Frost severity is the soil containing a large amount of silt, sandy silt, fine silt and thin clay.
Therefore, depending on your area, you need to consider the soil you are going to use and the frosts that may occur in the soil.
If the frost penetration depth is not less than the expected granular substrate thickness, there is no need to change the substrate design.
However, the substrate design should be changed when frost penetration does fall below the expected granular substrate thickness.
Section 2: Basic design and installation plant.
5 base installation and compression when installing aggregate base material, the material shall always be unfolded and compacted in 3 of the lifts.
Example: If your project requires a 6 in Compacted granular base, then you will have two equal lifts at 3 in.
If your project requires a Compacted granular base of 9 in, then you will have 3 equal boosts in 3 in.
Every lift of the aggregate should be fully compacted.
According to the determination of astm 95%, the overall compaction of the aggregate base should be compacted to a proctor density of at least 1557, while the maximum compaction (100%)is preferred.
As described in Section II.
3. Never install frozen aggregates or completely saturated materials.
If the aggregate material is completely dry, then adding a small amount of water will promote effective compaction.
Just like compaction on a soil base, fully compacted aggregate base material is critical to minimize the settling of brick machine applications.
The compaction of the gravel base should always be carried out using a vibrating roller or a large flatbed press.
Small flat comp machines are not recommended because they do not reach the true substrate density.
The basic course should be compacted with a compaction device that can provide at least 5000 lbs.
The density measurement of the compacted base can be carried out with a nuclear density meter or other methods approved by the local and state transport departments.
Nuclear density tests are usually performed on commercial and industrial projects.
The thickness of the final compression base should not be uniform because of more than 3/4 (19 mm )or -½ in (13 mm ).
The change in altitude should not exceed 3/8. 10 mm )
More than 10 feet.
The finished surface of the compacted aggregate base should be uniform and smooth.
Any changes you make in altitude can be adjusted with a choke.
The choke is a good material (
Such as screen)
This can be expanded and compacted to the surface of the base, which will help to adjust the final level of the base.
The compacted base should not allow the bedding sand to enter.
If you expect this to happen in some areas, you can apply and compress the choke.
Note: Any major changes in the basic course should not be filled with bedding sand.
Section 2: Basic design and installation plant.
6 Final base inspection with the installation and compaction of your aggregate base, it is better to make a final inspection of the base itself before you start installing bedding sand.
The grass-roots should be checked in all areas where it is possible to allow the migration of layered sand.
These locations can be curb stones, catch pools, and utility structures.
These areas should be covered with geo textile fabrics to prevent the migration of bedding sand.
It is critical to check all grades/levels and completely compact the base material.
Any major changes in the foundation process should be fixed before the bedding sand is installed.
Since the surface of the road will eventually show the features of the base below, failure to repair any changes will occur in the future.
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