sensors and measurements Home Automation Sensors - An Overview and Guide.
Home automation is to make your house smart.Like people, smart homes need information.This information can be obtained from you in the form of programs and commands, but normally, this information will be collected directly through your home use sensor and used for automatic functions.Therefore, sensors are the cornerstone of any home automation system.Because of this, the range and quality of the sensor you choose to install will determine what your home automation system can do and how efficient it is to operate.In this article, I will guide you through all the most common sensors used in modern home automation systems, describing the technology and its most popular applications, and give my own personal advice as much as I can.Motion detector is one of the most widely used sensor technology in domestic automation system.Usually, they are used for multiple purposes, for example, if a move is detected when the House should be empty, an anti-theft alarm is triggered, or when you enter or leave the room, turn the lights on and off automatically.The most common motion detectors are "passive infrared sensors" or PIR.This works by detecting changes in infrared radiation in its field of vision.When selecting PIR, it is important enough to ensure the effective range.Although most PIRs easily cover one room, more than one room may be required for larger rooms, especially for open-plan buildings.The occupied or present detector is basically the same as the conventional motion sensor, but with higher resolution.You can buy PIRs very cheaply and they are still very good for many apps --Such as anti-theft alarm or control corridor lights.But if you want a system to be able to sense whether the living room is occupied or not, for example, to automatically control lighting and heating, cheap products are not good enough.This is because they need to move to work, so if you're still sitting on the couch reading a book, the sensor may mistakenly signal that the room is empty.The presence or occupancy detector is able to identify a person's presence in the room from his breathing.: If you own a pet, then it may be a good idea to look for a product with adjustable sensitivity, so that you can manually find the correct balance between the correct operation of human beings, don't leave every time your cat walksOptical sensors can also be called optical sensors or photodiodes.It is used to monitor the ambient light level and report it to the home automation controller.This is usually used with motion or status sensors when someone enters the room to automatically turn on the lights-But only when needed.They can also be used to make sure the safety lights work only after dark, or to have outdoor lighting turn on automatically at dusk.If you're using light sensors outdoors, then it's obviously important to make sure you buy a light sensor with the right waterproof housing.When using temperature sensors, they are usually built into thermostat units or radiator actuator valves, but sometimes you may want to install a separate thermometer.Small temperature sensors can easily be embedded in walls to avoid sticking more ugly boxes to walls or ceilings.They are combined with humidity sensors and can be used to automatically control air conditioning or dehumidifyingHumidifier, or even open the window automatically if the room starts to get too "sultry.For example, a waterproof temperature sensor may be used outdoors so that you can check if your patio heater needs to be turned on before going out.They can also be used to monitor the water temperature in the tank.: The placement of temperature sensors can significantly affect their operation.Ideally, they should be away from the door and radiator, slightly down from the ceiling.If you notice that some rooms will be hotter than others at the same temperature, don't think your mind is cheating on you --This may be due to the placement of the sensor.However, if you are aware of this problem, you don't necessarily need to move the sensor and you can change the temperature setting accordingly.Because motion, light, temperature and humidity sensors are often used together in home automation systems, some manufacturers pack them into a unit called "multi-sensor.Buying three or four piece sets together like this can save money and reduce the number of plastic boxes glued to the ceiling and walls.Optics/Optronics: this is the most common type.It uses a beam, which triggers an alarm if the smoke particles interrupt the beam.Ionization: these ionised particles in the detected air are more sensitive than optical types.However, this may mean that it is more prone to false positives than optical sensors.Many modern systems use a combination of optics and ionization.Heat: detect abnormal temperature..These false positives are due to the use of error-type alerts at the location.Because many people don't even know that there are different types of fire alarms, it is common to install the wrong type inside or around the kitchen --But keep in mind that this is a high risk area and there should never be no detectors.Fire is not the only risk you can protect your family from.In the United States, hundreds of people die each year from carbon monoxide poisoning caused by household appliance failures.Carbon monoxide is no color, no smell, it will kill you even if you don't know you are poisoned.Symptoms include headache, dizziness, nauseaAll of this is usually caused by a variety of other things, which means that victims may think that they just feel a little bit in the weather, lie down temporarily and never wake up.: The most economical way to protect your family is to buy carbon monoxide and fire alarms, however, if this is not part of a home automation system with advanced notifications, then make sure you remember the different alarm sounds so that you don't accidentally think you get a false positive from the fire when it's actually a carbon monoxide alarm.Flood or leak sensors are usually installed under the bathtub and kitchen sink, or in other locations where there is a high risk of leakage.If you do have a leak in your pipeline, finding the leak early can save you a lot of trouble and expense as damage to the water can have a significant impact on your property.A high-quality flood/leak detector can even detect the presence of small leaks, and they can automatically close the water to prevent damage if connected to the actuator valve.In some systems, the switch is replaced by a proximity sensor.This will allow the user to simply place the hand on the sensor mounted on the wall, for example, turn on the light without having to really press the switch.They can also be used in more advanced systems for a wide range of uses from automatic cat-flaps to bird-feeder cameras.Contact sensors are used in a variety of applications, the most common of which are burglary alarms.The sensor itself is basically just a switch that sends out electrical signals when the two surfaces are in contact.They can be used to monitor whether the door or window is open or closed.Home security systems often use contact sensors in window frames, which trigger an alarm if the window is opened after the alarm is activated.If someone opens the window, automatically turn off the heating in the room to save energy waste and make it easier to cool the room.If an electric door system is installed, you can check if the door remains open and close from a remote location.Turn on the cabinet light when you open the door.There are two different types of sensors that can detect broken glass of intruders entering your building.The first type is installed on the window itself, limiting its usefulness in protecting the entire property.This is also known as the "impact sensor", which is triggered by a sudden high-frequency vibration when the glass is connected to the break.The second type is basically a microphone specifically tuned to receive the sound of the broken glass.This is more useful because a single detector can even cover a relatively large room with many windows.If you want to reduce energy use for environmental reasons, economic reasons, or both, then the smart energy monitor is a "must have" device.They can tell you how much electricity each of your appliances, gadgets, and electrical systems is using at any given time, giving you all the necessary knowledge to reduce energy consumption.For example, you can use the information in the monitoring device to identify which devices use the most energy in standby and then turn off these specific devices on the wall.Most monitors are installed between sockets and electrical plugs to monitor personal appliances, but you can also have the entire home monitoring system track your overall energy usage throughout the day.In my opinion, voice control is one of the most enjoyable features in a home automation system.Although voice recognition has been around for a while, controlling your home electrical and electronic devices with voice commands will still make you feel the future and excitement.Obviously, you need a microphone if you want voice recognition.For this purpose, the quality of the microphone you need is not particularly high, so there is no need to spend a lot of money on professional quality products.An interesting system recently launched is CastleOS, which uses the Kinnect system of Microsoft Xbox or Windows to detect and translate voice commands.Since Kinnect is a high quality system, it is very reliable and flexible, but if you want it to work in every room of the house, you have to buy a lot of Kinnect, it will become very expensive.The lane probe is embedded on the driveway outside your home and then able to detect when the car arrives or leaves.For example, automated systems can use this information to open the door or open the garage door when you leave.If the vehicle reaches your lane, it can also be used as part of the alarm system to start recording, and if your alarm is triggered for a certain period of time, it will keep the record.The moisture monitoring sensor is cheap and can be pushed into the soil of the garden or flowerpot to monitor the moisture level and remind you when the plant needs watering.Although there is an advantage in buying a higher oneTechnical version, a simple moisture sensor that works by measuring the resistance of the soil, it is very lowYou can even do it yourself.http://gardenbot ..A change on the moisture monitor is the water level sensor, which can be used for water tanks, etc. to monitor the water level.Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a wireless way for electronic chips and sensors to exchange data.If you put aside your fears about government tags and Big Brother state and buy your own RFID chips and readers, you can add a variety of features to your home automation system.The most common use of RFID in China is to replace keys.You have an electronic lock that opens when you wave your chip, not the normal lock and keyInclude the card on the reader.If you are willing to implant a chip into your body, then things will become more advanced.The door will automatically open for you when you approach.Your house will also know who is in which room, and its settings can be automatically customized;I remember reading an article about the Bill Gates family that describes how RIFD was used to get your favorite tunes to follow you at home as background music.
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