Choosing a farming tool that can cultivate the best soil conditions requires experience, luck and a little scientific knowledge.
Soil damage caused by ground and underground can help farm managers compare equipment to understand the impact of different farming tools on the soil.
Growers usually use farming tools to maximize the destruction of the ground.
This loose soil improves the growth of plants, especially in compacted soil.
However, the goal of the grower is to minimize the damage of the soil to the ground, as loose soil there will bury plant residues.
Too much oil on the surface before planting can also lead to poor seedsto-
Soil contact and guarantee the second farming operation.
Engineers working on farming equipment seek to provide systems for underground soil to optimize root growth
Increase erosion or ground damage that causes more farming.
Research methods analyze the past, researchers usually use equal spacing rods on oil to measure the above-
Ground interference caused by farming or traffic.
Manually record the vertical position of each bar relative to the reference height to determine the overall width and cross
Another way is to take a stick with equal spacing and then digitize the photo to determine where it is above
However, these methods involve a time-consuming, two-step process.
The size and distance between them is also a concern, as the measured soil volume and void may be much smaller.
In order to determine the underground disturbance, a series of soil cone entry meters have been used for measurement.
These measurements are obtained by pushing the piercer into the soil at equal spacing on the atillage tool path.
The needle access meter is made of a steel connection at the end of the shaft pushed into the ground by hydraulic pressure.
Sensors on the shaft collect force data.
This data is used to develop isograms of depth and force to show cross
Part of loose soil.
The measurement of the soil cone penetration meter must be carefully spaced to prevent interference with each other.
These measurements should be at least 5 intervals according to the ASAE standard EP542. 9 inches (150millimeters)
From each other.
A straight, rigid sensing device, such as asoil penetrometer, will also not be able to detect potential root canals by farming around the soil mass.
A new alternative has developed a fast and easy way to determine the distance from the oil surface to the reference height for measuring soil disturbances, which poses a challenge for engineers.
The past 10 years of research by the US Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Services (ARS)scientist Chi-
Huang Hua, Lafayette West End, New York.
Recently, the US Department of Agriculture
ARS scientists LarryWagner and Fred Fox in Manhattan, Kansas.
Laser profile measurement system has been developed.
Huang measured three with laser technology.
Surface roughness of dimension soil.
Wagner and Fox used laser technology to measure plant residues.
Laser profile measuring system equipment-
Laser profile measuring instrument-
Recently developed in the US Department of Agriculture-
ARS National Soil Dynamics Laboratory in Auburn, Alabama. , by Randy L. Raper, Tony E. Grift andUSDA-
Bobby H, ARS engineerWashington.
This system uses laser.
Position-based sensors ranging from 12 to 35 inch (
30 to 90 centimeters)with [+ or -]0.
7% accuracy. The laser-
Position-based sensor installed on power supply
Drive linear positioning actuator with 39-inch(1-meter)
Travel and speed range of 2 to 16 inch (
5 to 40 centimeters)per second.
The portable aluminum frame holds the actuator above the surface of the soil and allows the laser-
Location-based sensors through the soil surface.
The laser profile measurement system can be powered by AC or DC, which allows it to be used on site.
After the farming area, the frame of the laser contour meter is placed on the surface of the soil subject to interference.
The feet of the frame stay on undisturbed soil outside the range of farming tools. Atwo-
Size scanning by moving a linear scan
The standard speed of lateral machinery on disturbed soil. One cross-
Setionalscan was obtained in less than a minute.
Results Profile Display and depression related to farming treatment. Severalcross-
Segmented measurements are close to each other, so statistical analysis can be performed.
The intensity of obtaining underground data using a laser profiler is greater.
A small area of the farming area must be removed by hand, and only loose materials must be removed. A two-
The disturbed area is then scanned in size and measured several times nearby for statistical comparison.
Testing the system a recent experiment in the USDA soil box
ARS National Soil Dynamics Laboratory in Auburn, Alabama.
It shows the practicality of laser contour meter.
The goal focuses on determining how moisture content affects soil damage caused by deep ploughing-subsoiling.
The study was moistened using Norfolk Sandy fertile soil to achieve near-field capacity.
The pine machine handles ploughing the soil into 13-inch(33-centimeter)depth.
A week after the soil was dry, the researchers repeated the experiment.
During the four-week period, they studied four different soil moisture to obtain data on the destruction and farming tool force under various experimental conditions.
The results show that the influence of soil water contentandbelow-
Ground soil damage.
Figure 1 shows the average profile aboveand below-
Ground-disturbed soil of the handle tested at four soil moisture levels.
The figure shows the expansion of some ditches in very dry soil conditions, especially near the surface of the soil. Thesetwo-
Segmentation scans can be analyzed to determine the amount of disturbed soil up and down the original soil surface.
The data can then be compared statistically.
The decrease of soil moisture leads to an increase in soil damage on the ground (Figure 2).
A very dry soil condition creates the biggest
When wet soil conditions go through at least above, the ground is destroyed
The decrease in soil humidity also led to the expansion of the ditch area, but the statistical difference was small.
The laser profiler helps to determine that the magnitude of the decrease in soil humidity exceeds-
Ground interference may result in soil erosion, difficulty in planting, or a second farming is required before planting.
This information tells growers that they should operate the thisimpl under dry soil conditions, which are less disruptive to the soil surface than very dry soil conditions.
The laser profiler also helps to determine that underground interference increases when moisture is in a very dry soil state, which will benefit root growth.
However, if dry soil conditions are selected to reduce the above
Ground Interference, below-
The ground soil was hardly disturbed.
The laser profile meter allows users to quickly collect data and use scientific methods to determine the difference in soil damage caused by farming components.
The use of the Profiler provides a new opportunity to understand the relationship between farming forces and soil destruction.
Designers and producers can use this technology to choose the best farming tools for their soil condition needs. [Graph omitted]
Randy L, ASAE member.
Raper is an agricultural engineer at the US Department of Agriculture.
Agricultural Research Department, National Laboratory of Soil Dynamics, 411
Donahue Avenue, Auburn, AL 36832, United States of America; 334-844-4654, fax334-887-
8597, eng raper @ eng. auburn.
Tony E. Edu, ASAE member
Grift is an assistant professor in the Department of Biological Systems Engineering at Auburn University, Auburn AL 36849, USA; 334-844-3545. fax 334-844-
Tegrift @ eng, 3530. auburn. edu,www. eng. auburn.