Debate and debate;
Steam and ash spewing from Mount St. Helens Seon on October 1, 2004
15: 00 ETTHIS is a report card in a hurry.
This copy may not be in final form and may be updated. (Start Video)
Announcer: they were on the road again after the Miami showdown.
Who got more miles in this leading debate?
US President George w. Bush: Last night, Senator Kerry just continued his chaotic pattern of contradictions. SEN. JOHN KERRY (D-MA)
Presidential candidate: I made a policy last night and the president has been trying to debate on his own.
Announcer: It's enough to rotate the head.
HOWARD DEAN (D)
Former presidential candidate: John Kerry is in essence.
Karen Hughes of Bush
Cheney's campaign advisor: they also saw the president's heart.
Announcer: we will go beyond the campaign statement to see if Bush and Kerry are true.
Shortcuts and other questions about media coverage.
Is the reporter correct?
Laying the groundwork for the next debate series will never be too early. (END VIDEOTAPE)
ANNOUNCER: Now, from the Washington scene, Judy Ralph's internal politics.
CNN host Judy Woodruff: Thank you for joining us on this day after the first Bush/Kerry debate.
Voters watching the vote conducted a poll overnight. off --
They say the senator has outperformed the president.
But even Kerry admits it's not good enough.
He told supporters today that he needs to win every day from now until November 2.
We started with the Kerry campaign and CNN's Frank Barkley.
He spoke to us in Tampa, Florida.
What are they talking about, Frank?
Frank Barkley, cnn national correspondent: Well, Judy, Kerry campaign officials were very happy with Senator Kerry's performance in the debate last night.
The day after the debate, he came to the University of South Florida to gather supporters.
Campaign officials believe that Senator Kerry has taken effective defensive measures against President Bush's Iraq policy and the war on terrorism, and at the same time, he has put forward an argument, that is, he can become a stronger commander-in-chief and plan to make America safer. (
Start Video Editing)
Kerry: I told you last night that I will add active duty units to our armed forces.
I'm going to double the number of our special forces.
We have to do what we need to do.
We will have the intelligence network we need and deserve in the US, we will have a national intelligence director and all the intelligence is concentrated under one roof.
The president is still boycotting. (END VIDEO CLIP)
Barkley: Now, as we move towards this Friday's debate on domestic issues, the movement will turn to domestic issues.
Senator Kerry mocked President Bush today, questioning Senator Kerry's proposals for homeland security and how much Senator Kerry might pay for them.
Senator Kerry raised this at a rally here (AUDIO GAP)
WOODRUFF: pick up where Frank left in a few minutes.
Well, meanwhile, President Bush will gather in New Hampshire in the next hour after another showdown in Pennsylvania this morning.
CNN correspondent Elaine Quijano traveled with the president. (Start Video)
CNN correspondent Elaine Quijano: President Bush, a campaign in Allen town, Pennsylvania, said last night's match with Senator Kerry was a great debate, he said it highlighted some fundamental differences between the two candidates.
Now, as he has done before, President Bush continues to attack Senator Massachusetts because what the president is talking about is a model of contradictions and inconsistency in the war on terror.
The president quoted Senator Kerry's reference to the global test and said it showed weakness in fighting terrorism. (
Start Video Editing)
Bush: I will never put America's national security to the international test. (
Cheers and applause)
Bush: the use of troops to defend the United States must not be rejected by France and other countries. (
Cheers and applause)
Bush: The president's job is not to participate in international voting.
The president's duty is to defend the United States. (END VIDEO CLIP)
But the Kerry campaign says this is just another example of the president taking Senator Kerry's statement out of context.
They say the test is credible, so people know that the leader is telling the truth.
Meanwhile, the president continued his campaign.
He traveled to New Hampshire for a rally and then held a rally in another key battleground state in Ohio on Saturday.
CNN, Allen, Pennsylvania, Elaine quigano. (END VIDEOTAPE)
WOODRUFF: Well, the overnight vote we mentioned shows that President Bush didn't get much benefit from the debate, but he didn't really lose his edge either.
CNN/USA Today/Gallup poll shows that 53% of registered voters watching the debate think Kerry did the best, compared with 37% for President Bush.
I want to be sure we're right. Other post-
Debate Polls also show Kerry wins.
But on a major debate on who can better handle the Iraq issue, President Bush still takes a double stand
As before the debate, he was ahead of Kerry.
Kerry did get some points on Iraq after last night's performance.
Later, we will get more information about all of these polling figures in internal politics.
Both Bush and Kerry today accused each other of understatement the facts last night.
CNN's Jenny metherf watched the debate and looked for any misleading moments. (Start Video)
CNN Homeland Security correspondent Jenny Mercer (voice-over)
: Truth may be the most powerful argument, but in the debate between the two candidates, first and foremost on Iraq, it was distorted.
Kerry: so today we are 90% casualties, 90% losses, $200 billion.
In fact, $120 billion has been spent so far.
Expenditure is expected to reach $200 billion next year.
Bush: My opponent once said, well, let me be elected.
I took them out six months later.
What Kerry is actually saying is that he may start cutting US spending. S.
Troops within six months of taking office.
Kerry: his presence in Iraq is 10 times that of Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan.
Osama bin Laden is in Afghanistan?
No one knows exactly, but intelligence officials believe he is in Pakistan.
5% of al-Qaida leaders have been brought to justice.
In September 11, about 5% of the 20 al-Qaida leaders were present.
What about those who have replaced them?
The International Institute for Strategic Studies estimates that al-Qaida has about 18,000 potential agents.
But the war on Iraq and terrorism is not the only problem with the wrong words.
Kerry: Now, the president is spending hundreds of millions of dollars studying the bunker --
Destroy nuclear weapons.
MESERVE: No, the budget is less than $35 million, but $0. 5 billion has been reserved for future budgets if Congress and the president agree to continue production.
Bush: In the upcoming presidential election, 10 million people were registered to vote in Afghanistan.
MESERVE: Human Rights Watch says the number is so high because there are so many voters who register more than once.
Neither candidate has a monopoly.
The debate is a draw on this issue.
CNN, Jeanne Meserve, Washington(END VIDEOTAPE)
Voa: CNN has some breaking news, some photos coming from Washington state.
This is Mount St. Helens.
What you see is a live photo of the steam that erupted from the volcano.
We have been told that a mile of smoke rises in the air, and all these activities are--in the --
Just at this time, in a few hours after geologists discovered that the volcanic dome within the crater of Mount St. Helens moved about 3 inch kilometers they described since last Monday.
Now, just late last week, seismologists began recording what they call the seismic activity of a volcanic eruption.
We were told that the activity increased last weekend.
Scientists now report that the Cascades Volcano Observatory has three to four earthquakes per minute, the largest of which is three.
As we said, it's all happening. -
As we told you, in the hours before that.
The images are now being taken from the volcano in Washington state to CNN.
Citing a scientist in Washington state, "it looks like something similar in the 1980 s, they call it a dome-shaped building outbreak.
He said: "One thing that cannot be ruled out is the eruption accompanied by a small explosion.
So scientists in Washington state are looking at what happened in Mount St. Helens.
They said that at this point, they do not want the volcano to erupt again, which is a very large eruption that we saw in 1980, although some of the surrounding areas have been closed to climbers and hikers.
You see the live photos of Mount St. Helens again, a volcano that has been active for some time in Washington state and now shows some activity.
Since an earthquake struck the west coast of the United States a few days ago, seismologists have recorded an increase in activity at the center of the volcano.
It is reported that today, just now.
This is the scene photo you see now, a smoke.
They said it was about a mile from the sky.
Now we have Kimberly Osias from CNN at the scene.
Kimberly, where are you?
Where are you in Washington state?
Kimberly Osias, CNN reporter:AUDIO GAP)
Clarence, Washington, is under the Johnson Ridge Observatory.
We're all waiting for this.
Almost at noon, Mount St. Helens had blown smoke and ash for about 7 minutes. You can tell.
We will let you know if we can fall a little behind.
There is a 925-foot dome.
Obviously, the dome has moved up now.
So much pressure has accumulated inside.
What is the cause of this pressure, scientists are still not sure if this is the magma that has been moving around since 1998.
There was some rumbling and some small earthquakes.
But obviously, this is an absolutely incredible sight. Moving --
I was told that the wind is now moving in the northeast, carrying the ash and smoke you see now, and on a beautiful and sunny day, the spectacular sight of Mount St. Helens.
WOODRUFF: Kimberly, this steam starts coming out of the volcano, what, in the last hour or so?
Osias: Actually, it's almost starting at noon and going up all the way, Judy, you know, there's a lot of movement that's been seen by the seismologists.
We have seen thousands of small earthquakes.
Most of them are superficial, though.
Some have levels 3 and 3. 3 of recent.
But even this morning, we are in what is called a Level 2 alert, the level 1 alert under the highest level alert, that is, Level 3 alert, which means that volcanic activity and the volcano are about to erupt.
So I think it's a bit of a surprise for everyone, it actually happens today, it happens now.
WOODRUFF: Okay, Kimberly Osias, he's on CNN.
Let's give CNN's Miles O'Brien a look at the scientific explanation.
Miles, we know that, since the earthquake struck the west coast of the United States a few days ago, there has been a focus on this issue by seismologists.
What exactly are they measuring?
How do they know what might happen and why are they surprised now?
Miles O'Brien, cnn correspondent: Judy, there are a few things to consider.
This, like any volcano in the world, has great instruments.
That dome, the lava dome in the center of Mount St. Helens crater-
Of course, the top of the mountain is about 8,500 to 8700 feet above sea level.
There's a 900 in that crater.
The hard magma and the bottom of the lava are raised, and of course, you know, underneath it, is essentially a pipe from the magma, which lies under the plate we call Mother Earth.
So what they did was to try to figure out what was going on in this situation, where a series of instruments were installed, it was able to calibrate the movement of the dome very carefully and precisely.
The dome is always moving.
This is an active volcano.
Since the massive eruption in 1980, it has never stopped being an active volcano with huge volcanic debris flows.
Now, when we say volcanic debris, it means that it's not a lava stream, just like the Hawaiian volcano you imagine.
It's just a pile of hot rocks, a huge chunk of ash and rock, and a variety of overheated rocks and magma mixed together that almost knocked down trees for miles around, 50 people were killed, more than 50.
In any case, over time, what they do is look at some of the signs that may be brewing beneath the surface of the Earth.
Of course, the most important thing is the earthquakes, because it shows the movement of these plates.
The plate we are sitting on is terra firma because we know that it is actually sitting on the ocean of hot magma.
When they collide and move over hot magma, small cracks or pipes open to the surface.
That's what we know about the volcano.
So the earthquake is the first signal.
And then, besides that, what they do is they put all kinds of laser devices on top of the lava dome and tell them about the slight movement in any direction, whether it's bulging, shrinking, moving in any particular way.
Another thing they have to look very closely at is the cracks in the lava dome.
The cracks again indicate this activity.
Now, what they have to know is what is normal daily activity for a slightly rumbling volcano, when you know, for whatever reason, the heat has risen, and it's about to boil, and that's what we're seeing here now.
Over time, they build a database that gives them a sense of what is normal sim and when things can boil.
That's why we have been warning the region of volcanoes since the 29 th.
The question now is, what's in the cloud?
This is a very critical issue.
Is this just a big chunk of steam, or is it what we call volcanic debris that can cause more damage?
It's clear that steam is just water vapor.
Of course, it will not be as prevalent as that eruption in 1980. We know that.
It has no power to break out, never broke out.
So, for example, people, you can see in the foreground of this photo, if you lose the banner for the time being, you can see that the people there are actually watching, and the tourists are a bit fond of seeing the scenery.
It was not something you wanted to do about 24 years ago.
So, Judy, we're going to watch it unfold, and there are some key questions to ask about the cloud in its entirety ---Judy.
WOODRUFF: Well, Miles O'Brien is talking about this new activity at Mount St. Helens, Washington, and steam is pouring out from the top of an inactive volcano.
But now, after the earthquake that struck the West Coast last week, miles of activity has been explained underground, causing everything underground to come out.
We went to Kimberly Osias a few minutes ago.
She's with us again.
You can see the steam coming into the air here.
Kimberly Osias is still with us.
She has a guest from the United States with her. S.
Kimberly, are you there?
Yes, Judy. I'm here.
It's Tom Pearson with me.
He is a scientist in the United States. S.
Of course, since everything began to recover last Thursday, they have been working on things and monitoring them very, very closely.
And Mr. Miles O'Brien.
Obviously Pearson is just talking about the ash and smoke that we are looking. What is that?
Do we know if this is steam or something more ominous underneath?
Can you tell us what we saw here?
TOM PIERSON, U. S.
Geological Survey: Well, what we just saw was a relatively small explosion. -
It is because of our forecast, because of our forecast that we look forward to seeing.
The white --
It looks like the smoke is actually steam.
Now, this is the first puffs to come out.
Followed by a small cloud that had just reached the top of the crater edge.
This is dark gray because there is some powdery rock material inside.
It may be the rock contained in the explosive debris, not necessarily the fresh magma.
We can't be sure about this until someone goes up and collects some samples.
But normally, these first explosions are just pieces of rock that clear the vents.
Osias: You know, I know it's a little surprising, because just a while ago, scientists also said that the probability of things happening is about 70%.
Of course, we watch the game at level 2.
Why is this happening? -and right now?
Pearson: we have seen a gradual increase in seismic activity.
Then, as reported this morning, we saw this bump for the first time in the last few days, and this morning confirmed that there was a bump on the back of the dome or on the ice on the south side.
This is our first evidence that something is really getting closer and closer to the surface.
So many of us say today may be the day.
The Earth is obviously a living organism.
Nothing is more obvious than seeing something like this happen.
There are a lot of people looking for and enjoying this.
But talk to me about the risk factors that are involved now, and if there is one, I don't know it will happen immediately.
We are about five and a half miles from the crater.
I must tell people that we are not in danger.
But if you can share it with our audience
Pearson: We predict a dangerous area around the mountain, including a circle with a radius of about three miles.
This is what we think, if the rocks have enough strength, they can be thrown out of the blast as we have just seen.
We don't think there will be any impact right now, unless our ice and snow on the glacier melt rapidly and can cause small floods or mudslides.
Sometimes we call these lakes rock and water.
We may see one of them slowly coming to the valley below us from the edge of the crater.
Osias: I want to talk to you about smoke and ash.
I know air traffic is worrying and I know that coming in from Alaska this morning will use some infrared equipment.
Can you please let me know if this will stop and if there is any risk or air traffic will stop as well?
What will happen now?
Pearson: Well, what we 've just seen is not enough to affect air traffic, except for helicopters or small planes flying very close to the mountains.
But I want to stress that this is a small explosion.
This could be the first of a series of explosions.
Some may be larger, and we may get more magma once we are exposed to deeper magma.
So we still don't expect things to be more than 10,000 feet and we don't expect things to be more than those three --
Unless we start receiving deeper earthquakes, the radius is now only one mile.
If that happens, you know, deeper than that --mile or half-
The depth we see now should be the same.
Osias: Now, sir.
Pearson, I know, you 've been working on this for you.
You're a geologists.
It's been a while since you saw this.
There must be a buzz in the air, and we are all reporting.
I know you feel the same way to look at this, but it's bound to be a little excited to see this now.
What's in your head?
Oh, very exciting.
It's just fun to see these.
Take your pulse.
You make adrenaline go up and you don't have a chance to see them all the time.
So it's great to do that.
We all remember when the devastating volcano broke out in 1980.
This is obviously not the case, but it may be a bit uplifting for someone in the house to look at it and look at the smoke and ashes.
Tell me where. -
I know this is the case. -
It's kind of like what's going on in the northeast direction of the wind direction, if you can compare and contrast with our photos.
Pearson: Well, right now, it looks like--
What's in the cloud? -
We do now see a drift on the west side of the volcano, and we can also see that it is falling.
We saw some dark little string children under the clouds.
This is gray.
As you can see, it won't be very high, so it is now almost at the same height as the top on the edge of the crater.
So this is a good thing.
We don't want it too high.
The pulse stopped.
We can say that it is a cave of the volcano that has stopped for a while.
Osias: Now, breathe these things. -
I know we were talking to some people yesterday.
They prepared masks.
It won't come from here.
I mean, is there a risk for people who live near this and live in town?
Pearson: It's a small enough amount of ash. It won't go far.
Most of it will fall to the ground in the next few miles.
So it really won't make people far away from the downwind.
If so, that's--
The only thing is that you just want to stay indoors or wear a mask.
You don't want to suck it in.
It does have silicone inside.
But most of the time, healthy people cough out if people happen to be breathing some dust.
Osias: I noticed that I couldn't help but notice that you were smiling because--
Can you share your thoughts with me?
You're laughing too.
Pearson: Yes. I am.
It was fun to see it, and excited in the air.
Osias: It's interesting to see it now, because for others, there must be 1980 of the danger or risk that is not exactly the same, and there was a long sound even in 1986.
But if you would like, please talk to me if we can get a bit of technology again.
If you can take a look, the walls of the crater are shaped, and I hear a scientist talking like a horseshoe.
Behind it is a layer of ice, a layer of glacier.
I think it's absolutely fascinating when we talk about 6 feet and cracks, and if you can share a little with me, you can see the real blue ice.
Yes, it's a real Glacier.
In fact, it's not even officially named yet.
Since the crater formed in early 1980, it has been forming.
The horseshoe-shaped high crater wall provides a shadow for the accumulation and non-melting of snow each summer.
So we get more and more.
It is mixed with rocks that fall off the wall of the crater.
We have accumulated a layer of ice of thickness, and now it has actually started to flow, and we see cracks in it, just like any Glacier.
Osias: Excuse me.
I can't help but notice that it starts to dissipate here and pass through.
Does that mean that's the case, or will there be another hiccups in your words when you talk about penetration below?
Pearson: Yes, there may be one more, I think there may be more steam and a little bit of ash, yes.
Osias: So that doesn't mean we're completely out, and it doesn't mean the show is over?
Can we have some more?
Will they be more serious?
Or what happens next?
Pearson: they may be a little bigger once we get the real magma involved.
I suspect it's really just a steam explosion.
Once the magma gets involved, they get bigger.
But as we have already pointed out, the US Geological Survey said in its information update that we don't think there are many volatile gases in the magma.
It is an important thing to keep the level of the explosion and the level of the volcanic eruption.
Osias: Another thing we talked about Magma this morning is that there is no magma-related heat, and when the rocks were tested yesterday, they were actually cooler on the surface.
So, they think, it will show that there is not much of a warm thing and the molten magma moving underneath.
Pearson: It's just that hot magma is not close enough to the surface, and it hasn't been shown yet.
Well, this is--
Do we really see it? -
I know it's active.
Everyone pointed to Kilauea.
Maybe we'll see some moving lava or something more intense?
Pearson: Most likely the climax of this eruption is some lava coming from the surface.
We suspect it will be quite quiet towards the end.
Like we just saw, we had some explosions in the first place.
But we think it will be quiet towards the end and will become mushy, perhaps adding lava domes that already exist.
Osias: Back in 1980, was there lava?
Some people are here and remember this, but if you can share a little with us.
Pearson: Well, as early as 1980, it was such a strong explosion that there was so much gas mixed in the magma that when this hot substance really got to the surface, it could be said, it exploded and exploded into pieces.
What was originally lava was blown up into tiny pieces that turned into ash and pumice that were blown up by the wind and taken to Eastern Washington and elsewhere.
Osias: I would like to talk about this ecosystem that we are looking at if we can.
This is interesting because the ecosystem has obviously been working hard to recover and rebuild since the earthquake.
We see that there is a big dichotomy between the replanted trees and those that are very, very dry.
With what has just happened, what will happen to this ecosystem now?
Pearson: Well, what we're seeing right now shouldn't just affect the crater.
So hopefully life will regain its footing in the valleys below us and on these ridges.
Osias: really continue.
Go ahead, that's right.
It has been trying to move forward since 1980.
Osias: Well, it's great to see this picture. It really is.
It's definitely a good day, a clear day-
The Ashes and everything went on.
Pearson: it is.
This is a very exciting thing.
Osias: Now, if you want, talk about the tests that will be done now.
I know there are some infrared devices from Alaska that they actually have to go in and test.
Will you stop all of this now just waiting for it to dissipate or what are you all doing?
Pearson: No, the US Geological Survey will continue to monitor with all its strength and keep a close eye on it, because what we are looking forward to is more than just this small outbreak, and when it happens, we want to build on that.
Osias: Well, we will all wait and see as everything goes on here.
I know there are also many tourists taking pictures in this area.
If you give us some comparison to all the other earthquakes that have already occurred and volcanic activity, where would you put this?
Because there are many.
We all remember 1980.
We heard it (AUDIO GAP)
1986, but there are some others here.
This is definitely an active volcano.
Things are still going on.
But where would you put this thing in the vast picture of Mount St. Helens?
Pearson: Well, in the vast picture of St. Helens, it's still a small part of the whole story.
There are many very large volcanic eruptions in Mount St. Helens. AUDIO GAP)
Besides the long history.
Osias: Yes, it's a hiccup, as you said.
I want to use the word because it is.
This is a living organism.
Now, I recently passed by helicopter over Kilauea.
It was great to see this activity.
You see this, you think, God, this is still alive.
When you compare the two, how do they compare if you want?
Give us a sketch.
Well, the volcanoes in Hawaii are very different.
They are made up of a rock called basalt.
The rocks here are made up of a rock called yingan rock.
Their chemical properties are completely different, and their physical properties are completely different when they come out of the ground.
Relatively speaking, the flows of basalt lava in Hawaii are very slow.
They can form lava flows that flow for miles.
The rocks in these volcanoes must be thick and sticky.
It can't flow easily, and more gas is dissolved in it.
So it tends to be more explosive.
Osias: the thick paste of magma you said.
But why can't we see? -
Just like I watched some aerial shots.
Of course, I 'd love to go up and have a look in person,--
With other people.
But why don't we see activities like you did in Kilauea?
Is it due to basalt or something?
You mean here?
Now, we don't have basalt lava or magma here. St.
Hailens used to have basalt lava flows, but now this cycle seems to be an Anglo-rock type.
So this is the characteristic of rock.
Osias: Do you want to go up by helicopter?
Are you gnashing your teeth?
I 'd love to go.
I think I may answer a lot of questions here.
I'm sure. I'm sure.
Well, it's an absolutely amazing day and we'll all wait and see if anything else is going to happen.
What else do you want to share with us, sir? Pierson?
Tom Pearson and the United StatesS.
Geological Survey. You're too busy.
I thank you for taking the time to join our Cascade area.
WOODRUFF: Thank you, Kimberly Osias.
Thank you very much.
Kimberly is talking to a gentleman from the United States. S.
Tom Pearson Geological Survey
We want to thank you both.
When we can solve the audio problem, we will try to get back to Kimberly in a few minutes.
What we're seeing now is a small eruption. -
I think you can say that--
Mainly gas from the Holy Mountain and some ashes.
On 1980, 24 years ago, the hailens volcano in Washington erupted, causing more deaths. -
As you have heard from Tom Pearson and other scientists, they do not expect the eruption to cause damage to the eruption.
We're going to show you some videos now. This is it.
It's just a few minutes ago, maybe five or six minutes ago. -
There were gas and ash explosions in the volcano.
Scientists who triggered the earthquake that struck the western United States a few days ago told us all these activities.
They have been watching. -
Since then, seismologists have been observing the activities inside the volcano and feel that something may happen.
They don't know when.
But today, they are starting to see signs and signs-
It may happen.
Just a while ago, steam began to pour out, from--
About a mile high volcano.
And then when we put the camera on it-
This is a video from a short time ago. -
We saw a photo of the gas scene. -
To be more precise, it is steam coming out and turning into gas and ashes.
We heard that--
Tom Pearson of the United StatesS.
Explain the geological survey we see.
Is Miles O'Brien still in Atlanta?
Miles, are you with us?
Yes, Judy. Yes, I am. Yes, I am.
I want to ask you--one thing Mr.
That impressed me, Pearson said, saying, "I don't think it will get serious," he said in so many words, "unless," he said, "There was an earthquake half a mile underground or a mile or so.
Explain why it is so important.
O'Brien: Well, a strong earthquake will basically stir that jar.
I don't want to make this analogy for a pot of water simmering on the stove, but if--
If you have some tectonic activity, these plates are moving, and there is a deeper earthquake below, which may release another potential magma stream, which moves up, lava, whatever you call it, it is possible to cause this.
As a matter of fact, we can show you that I have a shortcut here. This is --this --
This volcano in the Holy Mountain
Helen is like many famous volcanoes, including Mount Fuji.
It is a layer volcano, a layer volcano.
If you can take a picture of us on SP102 (ph)
I will finish reading it soon.
I know you also have some important photos to show there.
But we can show people--
If we can peel off, do the cutting of the Holy Mountain.
Clarence, we will most likely see nothing different from this.
You see that you have a thick magma in the lower area below the various layers of the plate.
If there is some kind of earthquake below it will go through another vein or open it and you will get some kind of activity.
That's what he said.
Now these layers of volcanoes-
You can tell them by the way they have a straight line at the eruption point.
Most importantly, there you will get the Coronation effect of the kind of Dome I told you about.
In this case, starting from the Holy Hill
Hailens has broken out, you know, this part is closed and the dome is about the same.
Now, when they talk about these volcanic debris flows, what happens is not just 100% of the lava flows out as you can see in monaloa.
What you get is these rocky layers, and so on, exploding with the eruption of the volcano.
Its role is to release huge ash clouds into the air, but it also releases large amounts of material.
It includes very hot pieces of dry rock, all moving at very, very high speeds.
In the case of volcanic debris flow, this is the real killer.
They acted so quickly that people could not escape.
Also inside it is melted or even hard rock fragments, and all sorts of things are mixed together to flatten those trees.
All kinds of toxic gases follow.
Then, as we said, ash plume rises in the sky, which poses a danger to aviation, etc.
In the past, the plane flew in a volcanic cloud, one of which was pinatobo, which actually shut down the engine on the plane.
Now, ash from the holy hills
Hailens in 1980, of course, it saturated the surrounding area, but there was ash that, whether you believe it or not, fell far from the city of orrama.
Judy, these things are actually events that can affect weather patterns, and in general, the atmosphere in most parts of the world ---Judy.
WOODRUFF: miles, we have just been told the scientists at the observatory there, this is the waterfall Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington, this is the name of the town there and is preparing for a press conference.
We will try the live broadcast when the live broadcast starts.
But Miles, when we look at this, why don't they think this eruption will be as bad as it was in 1980?
O'Brien: Well, this has a lot to do with the level of seismic activity, the volcanic eruption.
It barely matches the strength, scale and frequency they experienced in 1980.
Also, you will see, frankly, that it has opened the lid.
In a sense, the damage caused in 1980 cannot be copied, because if you can imagine that large piece of material where higher peaks have been created, the bite is not there.
But they --
You know, it's interesting that they did a great job forecasting them because obviously we 've been looking at it for a while.
But there is still some black science in all this.
They know a lot, but there are also things they can't predict until now.
Many volcanoes will do this and will enter a state of height. -
Faster slow stewing or close to boiling for a long time will never culminate in the expected eruption.
So it's hard, like predicting an earthquake, even though we have a lot of scientific knowledge.
It is difficult to make a reliable core prediction of this, in addition to saying that there is a link between the level of seismic activity, the number of earthquakes, the magnitude of the earthquake, the scale of the final eruption.
WOODRUFF: Miles O'Brien talked from Atlanta and US about what happened in Washington state. Mount St.
The volcano has been spewing ash.
What we see is that after a few days of rumbling, there is a big column of white steam today.
All of this happened after an earthquake on the west coast. -just days ago.
Kimberly Osias, our reporter in a not far place, Kimberly, you are--
You're talking to Mr.
Pearson, Tom Pearson, United States of AmericaS.
I just asked Miles why they didn't think it would be as bad as 1980.
But let everyone know what happened in 1980.
More than 50 people died.
Remind everyone what happened.
You know, Judy, Miles is right.
It must not be copied.
57 people were killed in 1980.
When you look back at the dome behind me, there is already quite a bit of steam and ash that has dissipated from there.
But it is worth noting that the third side of the mountain is actually blown down from the north.
I mean, when you talk about mountains-
One thing is actually very, very intuitive, if you put your finger together and put it in ---
On the mountain there, you can see what it was like before 1980.
So time will never come again.
They are not technically ready.
Of course, you know, you learn from the past.
With GPS devices, they keep measuring seismic activity here.
So they were able to have a better barometer than they were before. -
Judy, back in 1980.
So the situation is definitely different now.
We want to show you.
If we can, let's look at the rest of 1980.
The fragile ecosystem is still changing.
You heard it too.
Pearson said treatment would continue.
If we can take a look, we can now show you a live aerial photograph from the crater.
The foot dome, causing all the attention to focus on it.
As far as I can tell, this moved about 5 centimeters and moved up about 4 centimeters and a half.
This is about one and a half inches or more and also outward. That --
You hear geologists talking about the deformation of the dome.
What led to all this?
We're not sure yet.
Usually, Judy, at this time of year, there is a lot of rain below.
Infiltrate around and get a lot--
A lot of heat is then likely to move up and push the dome area.
Now, the dome you are looking at is the Earth that has been transformed since 1980 volcanic activities.
You know, we don't know it's going to end. Mr.
Pearson from the United StatesS.
The Geological Survey said again--
I think the word is awesome. -is a hiccup.
In fact, we can see more activities here.
Just because the steam has dissipated doesn't mean everything is over now.
WOODRUFF: Kimberly Osias is very close to the Holy Mountain.
The hailens volcano erupted a bit and released some steam and ash into the air this afternoon.
For our audience, you will usually see internal politics at this time.
Last night in Miami, the debate between President Bush and Senator Kerry, we have a lot to talk about.
But this is the breaking news from the West, the Pacific Northwest.
The volcano, which erupted 24 years ago, killed 57 people.
This we are --
What we 've heard from Miles O'Brien, Kimberly and the scientists there is, I think you can say, it's a smaller possibility, but when it comes out, when ash and steam came out, these were photos about 20, 25 minutes ago.
When the volcano erupted, we trained the camera.
Very striking picture.
Kimberly, if you're still there-
I know you're still there.
Give us a description of the population in that area.
I mean, how close people are actually to the Holy Mountain. Helens?
How far are you from there now?
We're actually five. and-a-
Half a mile from the crater.
Judy, we are certainly not in danger.
I don't want anyone to think we're not safe.
In fact, if we were, we would certainly not be allowed to come here by the Forestry Service.
This is --
This is of course a safe distance.
They believe everything is included in the crater area and the Dome area.
In fact, there are still many trails open to tourists.
Just closed a few.
Now, in terms of population, this is true. -
It is quite a way out of material civilization.
It's about an hour from here.
But few other than that-
There are very few people living near here.
They have to shuttle from the nearest place.
I think, Kimberly, the Geological Survey and--
Not only that, but state officials also have a way to notify people who may be hiking, vacationing or something in the area when something similar happens?
How does this work?
Oh, of course.
I mean, all the emergency managers are ready and the Red Cross has been standing.
But they don't think it's necessary at this point.
I mean, it's just smoke, steam, and ashes that are moving.
They put people in those areas-
Many, many, many days ago, when things started to improve, it could be a dangerous area, a dangerous area.
In fact, came back last Thursday.
At that time, they began to see earthquake activity and signs of shallow earthquakes.
Remember, just because there is an earthquake doesn't mean anything dangerous or ominous happens, because it's an active volcano, and it happens a lot.
The earthquakes we saw last week were very, very shallow.
I mean, even Level 3.
In the grand geological pattern, it is still relatively shallow.
Just last week, I compared it to seismic activity, which I believe occurred in Parkville, California, with a magnitude of 6.
0, for comparison only.
WOODRUFF: Kimberly Osias, she is covering the situation of five people for usand-a-
Half a mile from Holy Hill.
Hailens, this afternoon, just in the last hour, we have been there to watch quite a spectacular eruption of steam and ash. All this --
These are live images from San Shan into CNN.
Clarence near Vancouver town.
We are now going to a press conference where scientists are at the Cascade Volcano Observatory.
This is KATU's courtesy.
Unidentified Woman: So we have Evelyn Roeloffs here, she's the geophysical scientist, and she'll talk to us about why this activity is completely stopped ---Evelyn.
Evelyn Rolos of the US Geological Survey: Well, it looks like what's happening is that the material that wants to come out of the Earth has been successfully cleared by crushing rocks and creating a lot of seismic events
Once it does, it basically flows out for about 10 or 11 minutes without any major seismic signal.
After the completion, the steam emission ends and the seismic signal becomes very low.
So it looks very quiet now.
There have been no incidents since the end of steam emissions.
Unidentified women: we have seen earthquakes in the last few days, ranging from 1.
0, up to 3 all the way. 3.
This is the highest magnitude earthquake we have ever seen.
Of course, these two seismic instruments that record these earthquakes.
Now, in some cases, these earthquakes have stopped, and in others, they are slow.
Will we see this escalate again?
Scientists have already talked about this roller coaster effect in which we will have an earthquake and then we will not see the earthquake and then we will see the earthquake break out again?
This is possible, of course.
I don't think we really know what's going on.
At this point, we didn't envision a major eruption, so that's probably all that's going to happen.
However, we will not assume this, and we will certainly not have anything else happening without more seismic activity.
I know that in the middle of the 80 th century, we saw the lava dome building event.
So in a situation like this where you have steam, ash coming out of the crater, and from what we 've experienced in the past, can you safely say that we might have such activities?
It only lasted about 15 minutes.
ROELOFFS: this is the first time we have held such an event in more than ten years.
Therefore, this may indicate a change in the behavior of the volcano.
We haven't --
We know that there may be some magma that surfaced in 1998, and we don't know how much it is or what state it is in.
I think we might see more of this until that event ---
The magma has completely abandoned its water and the Ashes it needs.
I know I talked to John Major. ph)
Earlier, he was an expert in hydrology.
Of course, there is a thermal imaging device in use that will be mounted on a helicopter and taken to the mountain today, he said.
They are doing so.
Well, John just told me that, in fact, they didn't see any of these added hot spots they were looking for, any magma they were looking for to see if it really surfaced.
So this is what he called the cold incident.
Can you describe what a cold event is for our audience?
ROELOFFS: Well, I think it just means that the magma that we have there has cooled a part.
Obviously, it still has a certain amount of liquidity, but it doesn't represent any heat coming from depth, which is what you need to drive any type of big burst.
This unidentified woman: talk to people about where the magma comes from, because I think a lot of the time we think it's new magma that could have a huge explosion, and that's what we saw in 1990.
But, it can be said that this is actually a pocket of magma, the remaining magma.
For the past few days, many of the gases scientists have been looking for have not been associated with this particular magma.
Now, of course, we see steam, and now we see ash.
To have a big 1980-level outbreak, you really need to supply a lot of fresh magma from the depths.
In the case of Holy Hill
Clarence, seven or eight miles from the ground.
We did not see such a deep earthquake.
We do not see any deformation of the volcano, which means that there is a lot of material coming up from the depth.
We don't see any gas, which means no new gas appears. So we're --
We are really confident that this eruption will result without the supply of fresh magma.
Tell me what's happening now.
Of course, I 've been in the USGS office in Vancouver for the last few days and I 've been watching you guys work 24 hours a day.
People are here 24 hours a day.
Actually, I saw a crib last night.
Someone spent the night in a baby bed.
Now, you start here explaining what's going on, and then what might happen in the future, because it might not be the end of the event?
Okay, I think it will--
Of course, there is a huge backlog of earthquake events that need to be dealt with and studied.
Now, we also have staff in the wild to install more sensitive seismic instruments further away from the volcano.
The instruments will be in a very good position to see if there is any new deep activity.
In the future, we really hope to have better instruments in the holy mountain. Helens.
The NSF has provided some funding and we are actually speeding up the deployment and we should start installing more GPS deformation monitoring stations in a week or 10 days.
So I think this activity is really good.
Call everyone to help us stay alert, but also come up with the funds we need to better monitor the holy hills
The future of Clarence
Unidentified Woman: I also talked to several scientists who have actually been out of the mountain.
No one landed on the glacier at this time.
As far as these cracks are concerned, this is what I was told.
All of these photos were taken from some kind of helicopter or plane.
Now, through this activity, how do you ensure that the crew is safe in the research they are doing?
Because I would imagine you want someone out there to monitor what's going on and then collect the data as well.
ROELOFFS: Well, there must be some interesting information coming out of the crater.
But the first thing we care about is security.
At this point, we do not have any plans to land people in the crater soon.
We will watch the earthquake very carefully.
When people go in, we have a helicopter on standby to get them out quickly.
Evelyn, thank you so much for talking to us today.
I know you're busy all the time.
Thank you for taking the time.
As you heard just now, the incident now looks a bit slow.
As you can see here with a seismological instrument, there is no activity for the first time in a few days.
The needles --
A needle you see barely moves.
Then in the Holy.
Just a few hours ago, the lava dome of Clarence was on it.
This whole piece of paper is a large blue strip, a large blue strip, because of all the activity, earthquake activity.
Now very thin.
There are not many things happening.
This may change, of course. We don't know.
The scientists monitored the situation very closely.
Come back to your studio, Ken.
We would like to thank KATU, our affiliate. -
In an interview with scientists at the falls Volcano Observatory in Washington state.
It's dawn Smith who is on the phone with me now.
She owns the eco park resort in tutler, Washington, which, as far as we know, is about 28 miles from Mount San. Helens. Ms. Smith, what --
What did you see today, what did you hear?
How is this compared to the big outbreak in 1980, when-
I know you were there too.
Dawn Smith, owner of Eco Park Resort: Yes.
I saw everything on the news.
Unfortunately, I can't see the mountain from our resort.
But it's just a good steam feather.
But enough to get all the scientists excited.
I mean, compared to 1980, it's just a small eruption compared to 1980 eruptions.
But it's still exciting.
WOODRUFF: How often do you see some kind of activity outside the Holy HillHelens?
Smith: Not many times.
I mean, we have good friends. -
Work closely with the mountains and get updates at any time, but I think this is the most exciting one since 1980.
WOODRUFF: you use the word "exciting", not in any dangerous way.
I mean, would you be worried that it might be more serious?
I mean, are you just listening to the news?
Where are you? How did the word spread?
Smith: Well, the forest authority is actually checking in with us every day to let us know what's going on.
The sheriff has--
Gave us the actual report.
We watched the news and contacted our friends at the US Geological Survey, and things like that.
But for me-
I don't think they can do anything right now. -
Anything that really scares me
This is very exciting because there is a big hole on the side of the mountain.
So, I mean, what it did in 1980 was something it would never do again before it was rebuilt.
So it's still exciting.
WOODRUFF: Now, I'm talking to Dawn Smith, who owns a resort in Washington state, and we're told that 28 miles--
It's about 28 miles from Mount San. Helens.
How many people actually live in that area, closer to the volcano than you live in?
Is there a feeling of how many hikers or people are on holiday in this area right now?
Smith: There are a lot of people on vacation in this area.
My husband, me and my daughter are living here.
We have several neighbors on the property across the road.
So maybe 10 people live here full time.
So, I mean, we don't have a lot of people here.
My biggest concern is that the New Zealanders will come on Tuesday and Wednesday and they have called me a few times to make sure everything is OK and we are not in the blast area.
So the only concern lately is that my team is from New Zealand.
So forest services, you rely on them for information?
They actually called us every day and checked in with us to let us know what was going on.
WOODRUFF: Do you live closer to the holy mountain?
Better than everyone else?
Yes, we do.
We are the closest.
The only place to stay closer is in the forest services department of cold water lake.
WOODRUFF: Dawn Smith is the master-
She and her husband own an eco-park resort in tutler town, Washington.
You just heard her say they live closer to the volcano than anyone else except the forest services staff.
Thank you very much for your ---
Talk to us this afternoon.
We appreciate it.
You had a good day today.
WOODRUFF: Thank you.
Miles O'Brien is now with us from Atlanta.
Miles, from what you hear and see, does this seem to have calmed down, at least for the time being?
O'BRIEN: It seems so, Judy. So it seems.
And, you know, let's put it in some perspective for people.
I think we may be a video from 1980.
Why don't we roll it up? -
We can almost do a split screen.
First of all, look at this huge outbreak.
It took place on May 18, about 27 seconds after the magnitude 5 earthquake.
1, sent a lot--
Enough cracks have been created to allow the eruption to pass.
So it's clear that this is a cause and effect of an earthquake.
This volcanic debris tide I 've been telling you means, you know, it's hot matter, hot rock, throw in some lava and initially move at 300 miles an hour.
You can see it go down that huge open ramp.
It slows down to 100 miles an hour.
Someone, Judy, who is driving away from the Holy Mountain.
The helicopter travels at 100 miles an hour, with volcanic debris streaming on the back and is alive to tell the story.
But what's more important today is that you should remember to run
Before that, it included about eight weeks of very strong seismic activity, hundreds of steam.
This is no different from the explosion we saw here, then a big bump that eventually came out of the explosion.
So really No. -
It's really apples and oranges.
And as it was --
It is noted here again and again that all the material that caused the destruction, deforestation, destruction and death of the holy hills
Hailens has been blown away by the wind.
It is the third on the top of the mountain and has disappeared.
So, in this sense, it will be far beyond our lifetime for the Holy Mountain
Clarence will be rebuilt in 1980 as a threat.
Having said so much, it's fascinating to watch Mother Nature work here. This is --
The mountain was born like this, and the Earth was formed like this.
If the Earth, if you want, it's almost like a window to the center.
Under these plates, what we call terra firma is nothing more than this hot lava pool.
These plates move on them.
There are these attractions.
One of the big areas is the Pacific Rim, where plates collide.
As they move, when they float on the magma, small cracks, pipes and various escape routes extend to the surface that allows the magma to rise.
And every now, then it comes.
Boy, what picture is it--Judy.
It reminds us that this is a living planet and we go.
Not just a stone.
Okay, Miles O'Brien.
We will be back to you in a moment.
We are looking at the aftermath.
These are now live pictures.
A little quiet.
Small explosions and eruptions of steam and ash in the holy hills
Clarence, Washington state
We have to take a break.
We will be back soon. (
I'm Judy Woodruff from Washington.
We spent a lot of time in the past hour. -
It's usually "internal politics," but we 've been looking at the holy hills.
Clarence, Washington state
We will bring you the latest news about this in a moment, but now it is 4: 00 on the East Coast, when the market is closed, let's go to New York quickly to go to the latest situation of Ali Weixi market today. Hello, Ali.
CNN business correspondent Ali Welch: Judy, the first day of the fourth quarter is over.
The Dow rose three times, and while oil prices closed above $50 a barrel for the first time, all three major indexes rose today.
Enter the final transaction now.
You're looking at the Big Board.
The Dow rose 113 points and the Nasdaq rose 2 points.
At 3%, almost 3%, the Dow Jones, Nasdaq and S & P have all risen strongly this week.
After Renke's shares rose 15%, the company became its chief executive.
Investors are thinking, perhaps, that under the leadership of the new government, Oracle's acquisition of the company may be more warmly welcomed.
Merck shares rebounded, closing up 1%.
Yesterday, shares plunged 27% after the company topped the list.
Sell painkillers in the market.
Merck's market value fell $26 billion yesterday.
In the long run, this is more valuable than GM.
Talking about GM, big promotions and rebates helped the automaker report strong sales in September, up 20% from a year ago.
Chrysler's sales grew by nearly 9%, while Ford's sales rose by 7%.
Shares of the three automakers have all risen sharply.
Finally, combine business and politics, if you want to know who will be the next president, follow the stock market, and when the Dow rises two months before the election, the current president or party won 15 of 16 times, but the current president lost 9 of the 10 times the Dow Jones index fell in the same period.
The key level to see this year, 10,290.
The Dow is now closing at 10,192.
Come back to you now, Judy, because of "internal politics ".
"Woodruff: Ali, thank you very much, we will enter" internal politics "in a moment ".
But first of all, update this activity quickly at St Hill
Clarence, Washington state
Let's go to Kimberly Osias for an update. -Kimberly.
Judy as: Judy, I think you can say we have a bit of a middle break, probably a middle break for geological games.
We don't know if anything will happen again.
Scientists are actually very excited to run around. You remember, we just interviewed a scientist a while ago.
Tom Pearson, as it was an amazing scene, was taking pictures warmly.
Although there was an earthquake, some very shallow ones did not have the massive activity we have seen in the past week.
At noon Pacific time, things began to change, which is almost correct.
The earth moved a little more, the dome moved up a bit, the cloud, a large amount of smoke, the steam blew up, it blew up, and then it blew out.
The wind blew for about 20 to 25 minutes and then things started to dissipate.
All we know is that we don't know the size of the rock because apparently scientists are busy explaining the data.
Obviously, they will wait until they are safe.
Again, we don't know if anything else will happen.
Sir's term of office
Pearson and the United StatesS.
The Geological Survey used is "hiccups ".
This is a great term because in fact it is a very, very dynamic environment, but it is the most active activity we see in the holy hills.
Hailens for quite a while.
There are a lot of tourists, and of course there is a lot of media in the attention of this historic moment. -Judy.
WOODRUFF: Kimberly Osias, what--
Kimberly, you're about five and a half miles from the Holy Mountain.
Where's the station of scientists?
Osias: That's right.
We're near Johnston. ph)Bridge area.
Five and a half miles.
I must say it is a very safe distance from the crater.
They think the activity is still there, the ash and everything is there.
As you know, they don't believe it's dangerous for anyone in the area.
It's been dissipated now, but that doesn't mean things or shows are completely over.
Kimberly Osias is watching for CNN.
Scientists pay close attention to the problem.
As you have just heard Kimberly describe, the most active activity they see in the holy hills
Hailens for quite a while.
They are watching because there may be more volcanic eruptions in the future.