Written by berbard gladstonemay 1987, this is a digital version of an article from The Times Print Archive, before it starts online in 1996.
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There are few items that are possible without Square, horizontal or measuring tools.
The tape measure is one of the most basic tools in these tools, and for most amateurs, the retracted flexible steel ruler may be the best.
This tape is 6 to 25 feet long.
Automatically rewind a lot with a spring.
Better locks to prevent the tape from shrinking in use. Longer tapes -
100 feet and above
It was hurt with his hand.
All flexible steel strips show the fraction of inches and inches, and some show feet.
Wider easier to read, extended further and not drooping.
Most of the boxes have their own width.
Press it on one wall, run the tape to the other, and add the width of the chassis to the tape reading for a full distance.
A square for measuring 90-
Degree angle and check the flatness of the edge.
It also facilitates accurate measurement: the metal blade displays inches and fractions.
It is useful to advertise three types of squares: try squares, frame squares, and combine squares.
Try square has a fixed metal blade, usually 6 inch long, and a wooden handle at a precise right angle.
When you press your hand on the edge of the board, you can draw a 90-degree-
Accurate cutting along the angle line of the blade.
The top inner corner of some square handle is 45-
Used to mark the degree angle of the oblique cut.
Frame square is a large flat metal square with two arms, one 24 inch long and the other 16 long.
It is mainly used to check the flatness of large frames and panels, as well as wide wood for marking cutting.
Frame squares are usually engraved with table, guide rail and inch marks for cutting raf and stairs at an appropriate angle.
The combined square shown here is the most versatile.
It can be used to mark angles of 90 and 45 degrees.
The inch blade slides through a slot in the head.
This allows to shorten the blade and make the tool an accurate depth and marking gauge: Set the blade so that it exceeds the handle at the depth or distance you want to measure.
For example, if you set the blade to two-
Inch projection and slide the head along the edge of the board, the pencil placed at the end of the blade will draw a parallel line just 2 inch from the edge of the board.
The combo square has a small mental height in the handle to check if the vertical component is vertical (
Straight up straight down).
The blade is exactly 90 degrees with the handle, so when you place the blade on a vertical surface, the bubbles in the handle are centered if the vertical surface is vertical.
The sliding calipers shown are used to measure the internal and external dimensions and diameter-
Such as the outer diameter of bolts, pipes, drill bits, rods or pins;
Or the inner diameter of the pipe.
For external measurement, slide the chin over the object;
Inside, place them at the opening and open them until they hit the side.
The mental level is used to check whether the surface is completely horizontal or vertical.
These levels and 3-
The inch line height shown and only 48-
The height of inches used by the stonemason.
The line level has hooks that hold them on a tightly stretched line or rope.
They are used to align or level two points, which are too far apart for the ordinary spiritual level;
For example, they are good for arranging fence posts or checking if the sink has a suitable slope.
Stretch a line tightly between the two points and hang the horizontal plane at the midpoint.
Adjust one end of the line until the bubble is centered;
Then both ends are at the same level. A 24-
The level of the inch Carpenter is the most useful level of spirit in size.
It usually has four bubble vials, two parallel to the length and two at right angles. The right-
The angle bubble is to check if there is a lead on the vertical surface.
On a long workpiece, place the horizontal plane in several places to ensure that the surface is not bent or deflected.
Regularly test the accuracy of your level.
On a horizontal plane;
If the bubble is not centered, paper or cardboard fills the horizontal end slightly until the bubble is in the dead center.
Pick up the level, turn over at the end and put it in exactly the same position.
If the level is accurate, the bubbles will be centered.
Bob and line-a teardrop-
Shape metal weight tied to a long rope-
It can also be used to check if there is a plumb on the vertical surface or edge.
Keep the top of the rope next to the surface or edge;
The line drops when the weight stops swinging.
You can also find a point with a plumb (
On the floor, for example)
This is directly below the other point (
For example, on the ceiling.
Advertising vertical lines can be used to draw a long line or a completely vertical line on a wall or other surface.
Rub the rope with chalk, stretch it and hold it at both ends.
As shown in the figure, pull it out a little near the center and release it.
This leaves a chalk line on the surface. (
Combine chalk and plumb lines for sale, automatically covering lines with chalk dust. )
A version of this article appears on page C00004 of the National edition on May 28, 1987, with the title: Home improvement.