found! gravitational waves, or a wrinkle in spacetime - laser distance measuring device

by:UMeasure     2019-09-25
found! gravitational waves, or a wrinkle in spacetime  -  laser distance measuring device
After nearly a century, the work of finding an elusive cosmic quarry is over.
With the help of lasers and mirrors, scientists have directly observed gravitational waves, or folds of the space-time structure itself.
Two colliding black holes, one with a mass of 36 times that of the Sun and the other with a mass of 29 times, send out these gravitational waves when they spiral into one and eventually collide. From roughly 1. 3 billion light-
Years later, these waves spread like ripples in the pond of the universe and were washed away on Earth in September 14, causing a slight but measurable change in the distance between the four mirrors of Louis Anna and two in Washington state.
In the last second before the black holes merge, they release 50 times the sum of energy released by all stars in all galaxies in the universe.
Speaking at a news conference announcing the discovery on February 11, California Institute of Technology David Rez said this is the first time the universe has spoken to us in gravitational waves.
Scientists facing the mirror
Experiment based on laser interference gravity
Wave Observatory (LIGO)
The signals received on Earth carry the features predicted when two black holes die and are unified.
"We can hear gravitational waves, we can hear the universe," said Gabriela González of Luis Anna State University . ".
Not only will we see the universe, but we will listen to it.
This is a discovery that many people think may win the Nobel Prize, and it is also an announcement that has hinted at weeks (if not months), with attractive rumors circulating on social media about the LIGO team.
Feeling the vibration that Einstein predicted for the first time in 1916, gravitational waves are one of the most contradictory parts of his general theory of relativity.
They are generated by extreme events such as colliding with black holes, merging neutron stars or exploding stars that are dynamic and violent enough to distort the tough, rigid structure of time and space, resulting in expansion and contraction of time and space
The ripple effect in Einstein's space-time theory finally observed gravitational waves during the merger of the two black holes.
Ripple 1 black hole 2 in a space-time black hole rotates giantsTwo black hole to each other before merging.
The closer they get, the faster they spin.
The energy they spiral and merge to release energy in the form of gravitational waves or space-time ripples.
The result of the merger is a larger black hole, although its quality is smaller than that of the two merged black holes.
Objects equal to the mass of three suns are converted into energy in the form of gravitational waves.
Black hole 136 black hole 229New black hole 62 gravitational wave 3ng STAFFSOURCE: lig yuan in Einstein's space-time theory, eventually observed gravitational waves in the merger of the two black holes.
Before merging, the rotating giantsTwo black hole rotates with each other.
The closer they get, the faster they spin.
The energy they spiral and merge to release energy in the form of gravitational waves or space-time ripples.
Black hole 1 black hole 2 the result of a huge energy merger of ripples in time and space is a larger black hole, although it is smaller than the mass of the two merged black holes.
Objects equal to the mass of three suns are converted into energy in the form of gravitational waves.
Sun mass black hole 136 black hole 229New black hole 62 gravitational wave 3ng STAFFSOURCE: LIGOBut as you might imagine, these changes are usually unperceptible.
If this is the case, we will see that the clock is running inconsistent and the landscape is stretching and compressing all the time.
However, Alan Weinstein, who leads the LIGO team at the California Institute of Technology, said gravitational waves are now crossing us.
I bet my left arm is true.
I'm a left-handed person.
This means that when these very powerful waves sweep the earth, their impact is very difficult to measure.
Weinstein said that the stretching and squeezing of the space is very small, noting that the gravitational waves passed at a time may change the distance between two people 1 m apart. 21 meters.
This is in the order of one millionth in the diameter of the proton, which is one of the particles that make up the atomic nucleus.
But, as LIGO did, separate the two mirrors for four kilometers, and the effect of this gravitational wave is to follow ten-
A few parts of the proton diameter.
'We can do that, 'Weinstein said.
LIGO uses two identical L-
In Livingston, Louis Anna, and Hanford, Washington, the shape of the probe separates a continent.
In order for gravitational wave signals to be considered true, it must appear in two detectors, which are made up of two sets of mirrors perpendicular to each other.
The gravitational waves passed will stretch the space-time in one direction and compress the space-time in another direction, resulting in an incredible slight change in the length of the detector arm measured with a laser.
The device is the most sensitive measurement device on the earth. In addition to gravitational waves, it can also detect vibration through trucks, earthquakes, lightning strikes outside six states, and signals from global positioning satellites, an electric pulse in the upper atmosphere of the Earth.
All this noise must be filtered out to extract tiny signals from gravitational waves.
Computer simulations show gravitational waves emitted by two giant black holes spiraling each other.
After decades of planning and political drama, the LIGO probe tried to hear gravitational waves for the first time in 2002;
After eight years of quiet, the detector was shut down in 2010 and further insulated from interference noise.
So when advanced LIGO observations began again in September 18, scientists were optimistic about their findings.
In a strange twist of fate, they already have a test.
The probe was up and running before the official observation began and has received a very tempting signal.
It first arrived at the Lewis Anna state probe and came out of Washington seven milliseconds later.
We were very confident when the event came and it was a good one.
Are we surprised that it's too good to be true? Absolutely.
My reaction is wow.
'I can't believe it,' Reitze said.
When black hole collisions use a small number of Einstein equations, scientists trace back from observable waves to determine what astrophysical events should be blamed.
In this case, these equations show that the two colliding black holes are black holes, and when they are combined, they form a new black hole, one with more than 60 solar masses.
Scientist Daniel Holz works behind the historic discovery of gravitational waves at LIGO co-op.
Black holes are formed by the death and collapse of huge stars, and if you can call them "black holes", it is one of the most strange objects in the known universe.
It is easy to think that a black hole is such a mass of matter with such a density that its gravity captures everything that is too close to it, even light.
But black holes have fewer areas than strongly curved, bottomless spaces.
Therefore, when the two black holes are combined for a moment, the event is by no means ordinary.
Weinstein described it as a chaos of curved space, changing rapidly.
In the collision detected by LIGO, the two black holes slowly rotate for millions or billions of years.
But as the two bodies get closer and closer, their orbits speed up until the end, they rotate each other at about half the speed of light, and emit a lot of energy in the form of space.
Distorted gravitational waves
Then the black hole merged.
In the last second before the event, the rotating black hole emits more energy than the entire universe emits radiation in various forms.
Once they merged, the merged black hole swayed for a while before settling down, sending out something called "ringdown", or a last breath before it was quiet.
This is an impressive story, told by the tiny distance change between mirrors on Earth.
Scott Lanson, an astronaut at the National Radio Astronomical Observatory, said the data looked amazing and he saw the team's manuscript, published in the Physical Review Express.
In the absence of any special statistical massage, it would be much more desirable to see Bobby in the output of the "original" detector, almost anyone.
Scientists from the LIGO team believe the signal is true;
In fact, they calculated that this compelling false alarm would not appear more than once every 200,000 years.
This is not true for all the potential gravitational wave tests the team has collected so far.
LIGO discovered at least one candidate signal generated by a combined black hole in October 12, but scientists cannot be sure it is not a false alarm.
The discovery marks the first time scientists have captured gravitational waves directly, but it is not the first evidence of their existence.
In 1974, Joe Taylor and Russell Hulse discovered a new, strange object: a double star, or two neutrons rotating each other.
The team determined that the pulsars-Tron orbit was contracting and realized that the only way it could happen would be if gravitational waves would drain the energy out of the system.
There is no doubt that this discovery proves the existence of gravitational waves, and Taylor and hulles won 1993 Nobel Prize in Physics.
The LIGO detector uses a laser and a mirror with precise alignment to detect tiny movements caused by gravitational waves.
The difference here is that the LIGO team has succeeded in directly observing gravitational waves on Earth, a discovery that will open up a new era in astronomy and help astronomers look deeper into the universe.
Seeing the universe in gravitational waves may be similar to scientists turning a pair of infrared or X-for the first time-
Light or microwave eyes look to the sky.
For thousands of years, astronomy has been done at visible wavelengths;
Humans can see stars and planets and watch them move in the sky.
However, the infrared universe is filled with hot, dusty clusters of stars born by these stars, X-
The ray universe with the bodies of stars, the microwave universe with the hot remains of the Big Bang.
Observing the sky with gravitational waves will revolutionize astronomy in the same way.
"This is a new way to study distant objects and phenomena in the universe, which prevents us from making good use of this method," said Taylor, an astrophysicist at Princeton University, using the example of a black hole.
We suspect that these things may exist. We have seen evidence of black holes in the center of the Galaxy. Now we will have some direct measurement methods, which are very different from them.
As the black holes observed by LIGO get closer and closer, they emit gravitational waves with increased frequency and amplitude, generating the feature "chirp" when converted to sound ".
The first sound in the video is in the exact frequency of gravitational waves, while the higher frequency of the next sound is more suitable for human hearing range.
Not only that, but other experiments may also detect gravitational waves over the next decade.
One of the detectors, known as nano-gravity, uses a millisecond-level Pulse as a natural gravitational wave detector, maintaining a very accurate time.
As the waves pass through the pulse, they briefly disrupt the time when the dead star rotates, leaving a signal that can be tracked in the sky.
Unlike LIGO, LIGO is sensitive to gravitational waves produced by stars
Mass disaster, these pulse timing arrays will detect longer ripples from spiral-rising supermassive black holes, and cosmic drains stir in the hearts of the galaxy nucleus.
The ransom says that before these massive black holes merge, we are sensitive to thousands of years because that's when they launch gravitational waves in our band.
It's about billions, at least hundreds of millions of sun masses.
Another proposed experiment is to launch a gravitational wave observatory called eLISA into space where it will be sensitive to waves generated by various astrophysical systems.
Then there are teams looking for the original gravitational waves, which were produced during the rapid expansion of the early universe.
In 2014, the BICEP2 team announced that they had discovered these gravitational waves, but the signal proved to be a dusty fingerprint rather than an inflated one.
It will take some time for gravitational wave astronomy to become mainstream.
But when it happens, the extreme, unseen cosmic events that have until now lived in the field of mathematics will enter the observable realm, filling the universe with a whole new set of mysteries.
Follow Nadia Drake on Twitter and her blog on the national geographer phenomenon network.
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