at at&t, a connection broken - long distance laser level

by:UMeasure     2020-03-27
at at&t, a connection broken  -  long distance laser level
They are three of millions of people who come to work for the company that was then called the "telephone company.
"There is a Fulbright scholar, Albert pador, who signed up as an idealistic young lawyer, and now, he believes employees are being asked to pay too much for the company's survival.
Today, his daughter is a rising star in a company he sometimes doesn't know.
Fannie Mae White's family is looking for opportunities from the south of the countryside, she is 26
A year of career as a telephone operator, the job is now almost out of date due to advances in technology.
And old Tom Toch.
His family traveled through the company on a classic American tour: Tozzi on an assembly line that makes phones and switches, a son, and then a grandson of middle management, it's a computer genius of a grandson. in-
The law of unemployment in recent layoffs.
In their very different experiences, there are many stories about the American Telephone and Telegraph Company.
And the story of the American economy, in a world of re-order, from domination to fragility.
For the most part of the century, "Maybell" was a benevolent giant whose telephone, electrical wiring and attentive operators connected a huge and different country.
No company has more employees, more customers and more shareholders.
Its scientists gave us an audio film in the 1930 s, most of the radar that helped us win World War II. Circuit that uploads the astronaut's voice from the moon, and transistors and lasers in the information age.
In almost every era, its values are American, and so are its advantages and disadvantages.
"The horse clock and the flag ---
Like the United States, more than 20 years ago, architect Philip Johnson said when he unveiled a luxurious pink granite tower, the tower will become the company's new headquarters in Midtown Manhattan.
Today, AT&T is once again a very different American icon.
The company's recent decision to split into three companies, cut 40,000 jobs and offer executives an estimated salary of $16 million has become a symbol of sacrificing some valuable value ---
Security, fairness, loyalty and community awareness-
The God of competitive and efficient enterprises.
The newly restructured and redesigned AT&T embodies the confusing quality of life in the new economy.
While doing massive job cuts, it is still a thriving company in the most dynamic industry, and as it grows, things in the pockets are getting dizzy.
While politicians and experts use AT&T as a showcase in their need for more corporate responsibility, but it's hard to find a company that spends the same amount of time and money helping employees find new jobs to build up new skills or ease after retirement.
Although American workers are suffering from loss of job security
Chip employers, American consumers and businesses like AT&T are looking for benefits: the price of long-distance calls has fallen sharply.
In this and subsequent articles, The Washington Post will look at the power to reshape this typical American company and the larger society.
The series will detail the impact on the life and career of AT&T employees, on the business and culture of AT&T, in the suburbs of New Jersey, with AT&T leading the company's exodus from Manhattan 20 years ago, the boom here is amazing.
"Universal service" companies strive to take care of their employees throughout their entire career and in other ways.
In return, it naturally wants employees to truly care about the welfare of the business and to be responsible for the reputation and continued success of the business.
"This grand parent-style social contract appears on the first page of the 1947 New employee handbook, which young war veteran Tom Toch received when he found a job on the telephone assembly line, to help his parents feed a family of eight, he gave up high school.
From the birth of the telephone monopoly in 1913 to the death in 1984, it seized this feature.
Theodore well, president of AT&T's monopoly At dawn, solemnly promised that it would submit profits to the policy of service ---
Customers and the larger society.
The company motto he created is "universal service ".
"In hundreds of Bell System buildings, it was instilled in the museum --
Portrait of Angus MacDonald in size, snow shoes
On 1888, uniformed telephone line personnel braved the storm and repaired a transmission line destroyed by the New England storm.
"That's what the phone company is," said Fannie White, a lively young mother in 1969 who wanted to be an operator so much that she was nervous.
When she bounced back in her second interview and got the job, she felt she was ready for life.
"I bought a beautiful white pleated dress and a small white heel on the first day," White said . ".
"It's a job you can be proud.
"White said that as a local operator, she felt an unimaginable sense of mission in her previous work as a toy shop clerk.
Her work was so important that during the snowstorm the supervisors picked her up on an emergency vehicle and she and her colleagues spent the night in the lobby until the storm was over.
"We spent a lot of time with our customers," she said . "
"The operator will be online until the other party answers the phone and you will talk to the customer.
People admire the operator because we did a beautiful job.
We personalized it.
Recalling his job interview at the age of 29 in 1963, Albert pador said that his future boss seemed to be recruiting him for his public --
And his lawyer skills.
What impressed them was that they were thin and clean.
Cut midrazner served as Army captain in Germany and later worked as an assistant to Republican senators for civil rights legislation.
John Sherman Cooper of Kentucky
"One of the main attractions for me is that this is a company whose activities and goals do not start with making money," said Partoll . ".
When he rose from Law Department staff to the top echelon of AT&T, his lifestyle had hardly changed, and even today, he and his wife still lived 30 years ago where they wereJ.
Because of its ethnic and economic diversity, they chose a peaceful suburb.
It is logical for a company that expects so much commitment and motivation to reward employees with virtual lifetime employment.
Even when dialing directly, there are thousands of long periods of time
No one was laid off 1960 from the outdated operators.
"You feel safe even in change," White recalls . ".
However, although this parental style has now been romanticized, it has not been successful.
Before AT&T signed the country's first and broadest affirmative action agreement with the government in 1973, no women and a few black people were recruited into the company's management training program.
Parent-style companies also expect a degree of obedience and consistency, killing personality, creativity and change.
People at the executive level have experienced 20 or more work changes in their careers, but only if they can pass the test, prove that they have the personality traits that are best suited to the company when proven through AT&T's extensive psychological research.
They have lunch at the executive restaurant and are diligent in attending churches and spinning clubs to avoid partisan politics.
At the lower level, it is strictly forbidden for technicians to wear ties, operator skirts or skirts, and for beard.
For employees who are late, have few jobs, and leave early, there is almost no fine;
"Dead wood" was dubbed the title of "retirement in place.
Employees who come up with new ways of working-
Even if they are better or faster-
Sometimes, if a supervisor or engineer finds out that they are in violation of the convention, their salary will stop.
Predictability is part of Tom Toch's safety as a phone company employee ---
For 34 years, he checked the same phone parts in a Kearny in New York state. J. , factory --
He raised his son and saw AT&T as the cornerstone of his life.
His two uncles also work in the telephone company.
It's hard to miss this.
In 1964, he registered as an installer at Bell, New Jersey, and eventually entered management, where he was under competitive pressure from his father and uncle that he had never considered.
Despite the limitations, old AT&T is a model of how modern businesses should organize and operate.
Big companies are better in this era, and none of them are bigger than AT&T.
Its scale provides it with great efficiency in scale and scope, which is actually the reason for its monopoly status.
By controlling everything-
From the invention of dial tone to the famous Bell Laboratory of voice mail, to the Western electrical factory that manufactures all cables, switches and telephones, and even the global network that provides telephone services to the most remote outposts-
AT&T ensures that all parts are connected to the cheapest and most reliable terminalto-
Terminal telephone system in the world.
It is not a company run by charismatic leaders or creative visionaries, but a company run by a binder called Bell System Practice, detailing how to accomplish each task, solve the problem of filling out every form, conducting any meetings, and even encouraging the morale of employees.
The manual has 33 feet shelf space placed side by side, ensuring predictability and reliability.
Despite AT&T's unwavering commitment to services, it is a service designed to meet "customer needs", as defined by AT&T and federal regulators.
The price of the service is not determined by the market, but by the cost of providing the service at & t, as well as the fair profit margin that the regulator considers.
As Henry Ford once boasted about his T-phone, the leader of the phone company once said that customers can have phones of any color they want ---
As long as it is black.
AT&T until 1954-
Twenty years later
There's a tone sports car in Ford's showroom. -
Color phones are provided, even so, not by customer surveys to choose the first tone, but by the wife of the executive.
All these qualities--
Arrogant and strict, but persistent and firm in quality-
Architect Philip Johnson is at the new headquarters of AT&T at 550 Madison Avenue.
The sparkling 38
The granite tower in the story, whose peak is completely different from the chest of Chippendale, is a unique new presence in the Manhattan skyline.
There is a huge gold standing in the towering hall.
The leaf statue with lightning and telephone cables, the "Golden Boy", is a symbol of the Bell System since Theodor ville era.
With a price tag of $0. 2 billion and less than a million square feet, Maybell is one of the most luxurious office buildings in each building.
A company brochure at that time had nothing but an apology, noting that AT&T was, after all, the largest company in the richest country in the world, a "holy place", in Johnson's words.
"For those who want to know if AT&T can afford it ---should afford --
"The architecture is so extraordinary, the answer to reality seems to be that it can't afford it," the brochure says . ".
But just as AT&T's company personnel were ready to move in 1984, the entire arrangement on which it was based began to collapse.
Break up in the middle-
Old white man
Carpet was laid in the AT&T conference room on January.
1982, the essence of the Bell System, the president of its 22 local telephone companies, who spent their entire adult life on the AT&T ladder, moving between states and missions, the premise is that there is nothing more lasting in life than a phone monopoly.
At the time, they were summoned to a huge AT&T campus on the outskirts of New Jersey --
Charles Brown, chairman of the board, announced one of the most surprising news: Maybell will disband himself;
Local telephone companies will have to act alone.
"I can't walk through this room without thinking of the surprised look on the face of 99% people," recalls pador, who was a member of the company's executive committee at the time.
A shocked face in the room was Robert E.
Alan is currently chairman of AT&T and then president of Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone.
Local telephone service for Washington DC. C. , area.
Three days later, when the news came to the public, Allen reported that he had never closed his eyes since then.
Brown's decision was an astonishing concession to the antitrust case initiated by the Justice Department.
But the government is only one of the most obvious forces in more than a decade to unite against phone monopoly.
Pador recalled that since the end of 1960, he and his legal staff faced one challenge after another on the Federal Communications Commission, it reflects public unease about how long it will take for monopolies to bring new technologies to market.
Regulators are increasingly supporting thosebe rivals --
Including microwave communications
MCI in Washington--
They want to enter the field of telephone business.
In the economy as a whole, with international trade and deregulation opening up markets to more flexible new competitors, bragging advantages of scale and scope almost disappeared overnight, they occupy the most profitable part of the giant corporate empire.
Advances in technology-
Marked by PC, fax and FedEx-
Suddenly, it provides small companies with the ability to buy and manage many previously only large companies.
As the wave of acquisitions swept Wall Street, investors began to press their interests on the interests of employees and customers.
In the telephone industry, MCI is eager to establish a national microwave network to provide a cheaper long-term
Provide remote services to large volume business customers.
Partoll and other AT&T leaders realize that in order to match the low price of MCI, they can no longer honor the policy of subsidizing the low price.
Spend basic residential services by charging their long-distance customers too much.
Meanwhile, AT&T's manufacturing competitors are offering new digital telephone systems to businesses that allow computers to "talk" to each other over telephone lines.
By contrast, AT&T is following the government --
Approved a policy to adhere to the use of old analog machines before fully withdrawing the initial investment.
As the Justice Department filed an antitrust lawsuit against the company at the same time, Patel and Brown reluctantly concluded that AT&T had no choice but to divide itself into several parts.
Even those who helped to make the decision were tortured by it, thinking that there was nothing for Maybell
The cost of local services will soar and the quality will deteriorate.
Within the company, employees at each level react as if a family was breaking up.
Simply abandon the Bell System logo--
A circle of clocks--
It was painful that AT&T had to surrender to the regional telephone company.
At a Western power facility in Newark, when employees gathered together to ring the bell from their company ID card, even the hardened Foreman cried openly.
Their unease has nothing to do with economic insecurity.
The leaders of AT&T are immersed in the social contract of the Bell System, vowing that no one will be unemployed in this huge breakup.
Like pador, they believe that the size, research capabilities, infrastructure and reputation of the company will overwhelm all competitors and create more jobs, not less.
However, this confidence is wrong.
Emerging Companies like northern Canada Telecom-
Not solemn AT&T-
Introduce the equipment required by the computer
As consumers grew older, the company's share of the emerging business telephone system market plunged to 20%.
Without marketing help from local phone companies, consumers quickly shifted from mobile phone rental in Western Electric to competitor purchases, including overseas factories.
With the decline in market share, the company rushed to modernize some factories while closing other factories, including the Kearny factory that Tom Toch had just retired.
Most of the work is transferred to factories in the south and abroad.
At the same time, in the long-distance business
AT&T's costs are burdened with outdated equipment, bloated bureaucracy, and a culture that is more engineering-friendly than marketing.
Suddenly, outsiders were recruited from competing giants such as IBM to executive suites, marketers and finance.
Digital Equipment CompanyThe new in-
The crowd sneered at the stable and loyal "Bellman" who felt they had no choice but to accept a generous retirement plan.
After breaking up, Tapas K.
Sen, then corporate culture director at AT&T, pointed out three sub-cultures. A small one --
15% of workers-
Resist change crazily;
The competition is equally small;
The biggest--70 percent --
"I know they have to change, but they can't do it emotionally.
They're asking for our help.
"The man who made the transition was little Tom Toch.
Before breaking up, he saw that AT&T's path to safety included continuous improvement of his skills, which he did almost from the beginning and went to college at his own expense.
In early 1970, he entered management to help install and run a computerized telephone repair system.
This progress has resulted in the closure of 26 offices at & t and the manual handling of repairs by hundreds of staff and technicians.
Starting from 1980, Tozzi began regular scanning
Pay close attention to the skills required for new employees.
"If I see the skills I don't have, I will take {company}
Of course, "said Tozzi.
Once or twice, his work is threatened by a restructuring of the company, but every time he has the ability to re-appear with more responsibility.
Others, however, are less prescient or lucky.
Layoffs began in 1985. -
First in manufacturing, and finally in the whole company. -
They, perhaps, are more marked by the end of the old AT&T culture.
The next 11 years--
Even before the recent restructuring-
AT&T cut wages by 25%, or 100,000 people.
At the focus group and brainstorming sessions at the company's headquarters, pador and his colleagues encountered difficulties in how to maintain a loyal, motivated workforce, because lifelong employment is like spinning
In a community like Morris townJ.
For 20 years AT&T has been thriving, and with the company vacating the office building in the city center, with the crowds of lunch time, people feel betrayed
Thriving shops on urban green space.
AT&T has been in a state of almost constant cost since breaking up
Cutting and restructuring, sometimes it's not even clear what business it's doing.
On Wall Street, investors who were once very loyal to AT&T began to turn their attention elsewhere.
While the price of most other stocks has soared for most of the 1980, AT&T shares have fallen behind. Once-
At the same time, loyal customers are happy with a new game for a long distance company and another company, driven by cash incentives and active advertising campaigns, AT&T warns customers tempted by MCI's low price to "get it in writing ".
"Just one-
Of all long-distance customers, operators are replaced every quarter.
AT&T is no longer able to take on the loyalty of customers or investors, and it is becoming less and less apologetic that it is no longer able to maintain its traditional loyalty to its employees.
Sen said the new social contract replaced "job safety" with "occupational safety", which means AT&T will provide ongoing training programs for workers outside AT&T
For Fannie Mae White, it's not the technical and efficiency pressures that have deprived her of her special feeling as an operator.
"All you have to say is, AT&T.
What can I do for you?
Then you enter the number and the phone is gone, "she said.
"I don't think I'm helping customers at all.
Over the years, I have always felt that my job is to help.
You made another call before you realized it.
"The number of operators continues to decrease as computers and voice synths enable customers to do credit cards and answer calls on their own.
When White was in WayneJ.
Eighteen months ago, at 54, she decided to hang up her headphones after 26 years, accept a retirement package, and then move back to her mother's hometown of North Carolina.
"When I came, there was a dress code," she recalled . "
"You have to wear a skirt or skirt.
You are proud to wear well.
But in the end, people wear almost everything.
You will see them on jogging pants, sneakers, baseball caps.
I even knew someone would use a curling iron.
"I just think things have changed with the development of society.
Harold berlingame, senior HR manager At & t, is one of the only two Bell Systems veterans on the executive committee, he said it took many years for the company's leaders to realize that restructuring and repositioning were meant to stay.
"We spent a couple of years in our mindset and when the dust settles, we get back to normal," Burlingame said . ".
"Then we realized that the dust would never settle down.
This is the world we live in now.
"In 1992, when AT&T decided not to afford the monument Philip Johnson designed for it in Midtown Manhattan and moved its executive office to the outskirts of New Jersey, it was very obvious.
Johnson said the tower would prompt viewers to say that "it must be the AT&T Building" was taken over by Sony Japan.
The magnificent hall is no longer the home of AT&T's "Golden Boy" and now attracts a lot of people who watch and play electronic magic and gadgets from Japanese companies
This proves the global reach of companies like AT&T.
"The building is designed to give people a sense of a company that lasts thousands of years," said Michael P . "
S. Head of business at SonyS.
Operations in 1992.
"But it was occupied by temporary people.
Robert Allen, chairman of the second BreakupLast at & t in September-
People at the company were shocked by the 1982 decision to break the Bell System-
AT&T's announcement that it would be split into three separate businesses to accommodate the rapid changes in the telecom industry surprised his own staff.
"These effects are obvious: make the necessary, even painful changes today, or give up the future. . .
Alan wrote to the staff later.
"We should not forget the big blue that once owned the computer industry. U. S.
Steel was the giant of the time.
The Pan American fleet dominates the world.
The three major automakers see Japanese imports as a niche market.
"No one should be frustrated by news reports about mass layoffs," Allen initially told employees . ".
But on January AT&T announced that it would lay off 40,000 people within three years as part of the restructuring.
Employees are told to submit resumes to new businesses, just like new applicants, waiting for their fate.
Even some officials in charge of personnel decision-making found that their work disappeared in the new organizational chart.
Today, the actual number of "victims" is still vague.
A large number of managers took advantage of the generous retirement benefits, while thousands of others found jobs elsewhere in the company.
Thousands of jobs lost as business in other departments was sold or closed-
Like mobile phones and new Internet services. -
Add employees at a faster speed.
Many people who were told that their work would be canceled were later extended.
As of last week, the company reported that only 1,000 employees had left their jobs involuntarily since January.
However, unlike the past, no one expects dust to settle down soon. Tom Tozzi Jr.
Now 54 years old last month, at a "information sharing Conference", the company may abandon the computerized accounting system he helped manage to adapt to the new system he is not familiar.
This uncertainty is enough to bring him back to the database of internal job openings, where he accepted a new position last week as a domestic hotline manager
Computer system.
"I try to accept change," he said . " "But again, you have to prove yourself to management and the people who work with you, which can't help but run through your mind.
"The new AT&T highlights two features that old AT&T psychologists believe are not relevant to success: tolerance for uncertainty and resistance to stress.
Jeff Toch, 23, has both.
18 months ago, little Tom's son was hired on AT&T's management track.
Grandson of Old Tom--
In his family, the first one started to be a manager. -
Has participated in 16 training programs covering topics ranging from "today's financial process" to "being a leader in coaching and skilled communicators.
"Young Tochi expressed sympathy for thousands of colleagues whose work has been canceled or will soon be canceled.
But he said it was important. of-
In fact, anyone who is "too comfortable in a position" may only blame themselves for the next restructuring, which is for sure.
"You can't afford to have only one career path," Tozzi said . " He jumped to Lucent technology, one of the new companies.
This is a communications equipment business that hedge bets through three career paths: accounting, computer network management, and employee training.
For many employees-
Especially those who are older than Jeff Toch, who have children, mortgages, college fees or other obligations ---
The formula is not so clear. His brother-in-
Ken Buhler, 33, is a 12-year-old lawyer.
AT&T senior staff, trained by the company as skilled technicians in the growing field of personal computer networks.
Like Tozzi, Buhler found a job at Lucent when the new mission passed in last January.
But before March, Lucent concluded that running a computer system was not one of its "core capabilities" and decided to "outsource" the entire business to IBM.
Like many of his 3,000 computer colleagues, bulleben could have followed his job to IBM's vast business in Boulder, Colorado.
But because of his wife's desire to obtain a term as a teacher, they decided not to act.
He is applying for a job but would like the displaced Lucent technician to "go home" at & t.
Boule's sense of insecurity went beyond financial problems.
"It even makes us wonder if we want children," he said recently . ".
"We grew up in a house all our lives.
Like everyone else, we want to be safe and stable as parents.
Here I have the skills to keep myself anywhere, but there is no guarantee no matter where I go.
"On the most recent day, at the corporate headquarters in Basking Ridge, Al Partoll is packing up 33 years of AT&T records and memories ready to retire at the age of 63.
Almost every object has evidence that AT&T and the larger society have undergone change in his long career: marble square in the Hall of the original AT&T headquarters in Lower Manhattan, he helped plan the historic disintegration of the Bell system;
A piece of the Berlin Wall that says, "You helped push this wall down," which refers to his role as supervisor of AT&T's business in Germany during the years before reunification.
But pador's satisfaction from his rich career carries lingering concerns about the company's "service spirit" he embodies.
He is worried that the company's layoffs have already started their own lives because there are too many "short-term"
Financial considerations that will eventually prove harmful to the company.
He said: "I know that social contracts can't be like this when I come to AT&T, but I also know that this should not be what we are trying to fight for today. . . .
I think the leadership of American companies has to face the fact that you can't abandon employees without considering the long term
The long-term impact on the spirit and culture of the enterprise, thus the impact on its sustainable competitive advantage. . . .
"Unless it is the loyalty and motivation of the company's employees, I don't know what the core and soul of the company is.
You can buy technology, you can buy R & D, you can buy almost everything, if so, what is the difference between AT&T?
What is the difference between any company?
"Not everyone in the pador family has these questions.
32-year-old Kimberly pador, a rising star in AT&T's marketing department, has the same competitive advantage as her father's wearing his Bell System stripes.
She doesn't have an Angus McDonald's portrait on the corridor in the AT&T headquarters area.
Standing in his position is a banner of a big shark with sharp teeth, warning: "Tell competitors not to go into the water!
"Kimberly pador has been designing a new marketing strategy in recent months that directly affects the stress conditions that many Americans are now under.
It will emphasize the convenience of relying on AT&T to meet all communication needs: local, long distance, cellular, Internet, satellite TV, e-shopping, work.
"We are all working hard.
The complexity of managing life is getting harder and harder, "said pador.
"We want to simplify your life.
"Her mother said she worked harder than her father and put in a lot of 14-hour days.
She often arrives before the secretary, even after the lawyer, and uses two mobile phones (
One in her car, one in her wallet)
Keep in touch with her voicemail when she is not in the office.
"I have this strange sense of excitement about what this restructuring will enable us to do," she said . ".
"I just think there are too many opportunities.
We can really win at this point!
As a marketer, that's part of what I want to be.
I'm very competitive.
Description: establish a connection: the government grants an AT&T monopoly status.
1919: introduce dial-up telephone switch. Issue 1937: Clinton
Davidson became the first scientist to win the Nobel Prize at Bell Labs.
1947: scientists at Bell Labs invented transistors.
1951: Introduction to long-distance direct dialing.
1958: scientists at Bell Labs invented the laser.
1969: The Federal Communications Commission approves MCI to provide experimental competitive long distance services between Chicago and StLouis.
1974: The Department of Justice has filed extensive antitrust lawsuits against AT&T.
1978: Chicago launched its first mobile phone service.
1984: resolving the antitrust action, AT&T broke the Bell System and shut down the local telephone service.
1984: AT&T opens a new headquarters on Madison Avenue, Manhattan.
1991: AT&T acquired NCR, a computer manufacturer.
1992: AT&T acquired McCaw Cellular and entered the mobile phone business.
1992: AT&T rents Madison Avenue headquarters to Sony
1995: AT&T announced that it would split into three companies, with 40,000 layoffs.
Calls from the United StatesS.
Billions of dollars in cell phones*1926 25. 21930 29. 41940 35. 11950 67. 41960 105. 21970 180. 31980 301. 21990 465. 91994 548.
6 * estimates for some years have been used.
Source: Federal Communications Commission Title: workers and managers, retirees and retireesto-
On the left is telephone operator Fannie Mae White, and on the left is Albert pador, senior vice president at & t, starting with Bell Systems, which is a monopoly but parent-style company, take social contracts with employees seriously.
Description: Retirement: Vice President Albert Patel has worked with Bell for 33 years.
"I know that when I came to AT&T, it was impossible for the social contract to be like this. . .
I don't know what the core and soul of a company is, unless it is the loyalty and motivation of employees.
Description: Rising: his daughter Kimberly has emerged in AT&T Marketing, feeling "strange excitement" about the restructuring ".
Description: Settlement: Old Tom Toch, Bell is home to three generations.
Photos taken by little Tom
The latest Joiner is Jeff, left, the first Tozzi to start managing the track.
Description: Ken Buhler opt-out: Ken Buhler leaves AT&T for Lucent technology and is now looking for a job.
"No matter where I go, there is no guarantee.
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