Signature: Mohammed Basalat, Yasir Safez, Hawaja Shoaib Ahmed and Mohammed Zeshan Ali summary Kashmir 2005 earthquake in affected areas of Pakistan
The Panjgran mass movement in the NeelumValley area close to the epicenter hindered the NeelumValley communication system for many days, even after the earthquake. SPOT-
Using the methods of 5 images and ground survey, the activated Panjgran mass movement features were analyzed.
The mass movement moved 650 m north, causing serious damage to Neelum Road.
The collapse of the cracked sandstone in the murree formation in the New World caused preliminary damage.
When in the detachment, the rock is separated from the bed rock and goes down the mountain and gathers at the bottom of theridge.
It is estimated that the total volume of the panjegeland mass movement is about 6. 75 x106 m3.
Research shows that the mass movement is before
Due to the earthquake in Kashmir, the existing landslides on the steep slopes are weakened and weakened by river and ground shocks.
Key words: mass movement;
2005 earthquake in KashmirHimalayas;
MurreeFormation; Neelum Valley. 1.
Introduction to the 2005-magnitude Kashmir earthquake. 7.
6 and itsepicenter with happened in Muzaffarabad northeast orientation 2005 mi/The of onoctober 8, 18 km mi/(34. 493, 73. 629)
26 km deep focus (USGS 2006; Fig. 1).
The devastating earthquake was a devastating mountain disaster in the history of Kashmir in 100. Bendicket al. , 2007).
73,000 people were killed, 69,000 injured and homeless, according to official sources.
The earthquake killed 8 million people.
In addition, several large-scale movements were triggered throughout the region affected by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake.
These are mainly rock falls, rock edges, debris falls and rock avalanches (
The scale of landslides ranges from several cubic meters to 98 m³.
It is reported that the area of the avalanche in hartian Bala rock is 0 million cubic meters (Basharatet al. , 2012)
In the range of about 2,930 square kilometers, the 3250 mass movements are explained through satellite images (Basharat, 2012; Basharat etal. 2016).
In 1293 locations near the city of Muzaffarabad and Balakot, a total of 174 mass movements were found (Owenet al. , 2008).
The spatial distribution of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake mass movement shows that the distribution is mainly controlled by the Muzaffarabad fault and earthquake (Basharat et al. , 2014).
The reactivated Panjgran mass movement near the epicenter of the magnitude 2005 earthquake in the Neelum Valley area is an example (
2015. Basharatand Rohn; Fig. 1).
This is the largest mass movement.
75 million cubic meters around the epicenter, causing serious landscape, buried 300-
400 from Neelum Road.
Thus, after the 2005 kashmirearth earthquake, theNeelum Road was still blocked for many days.
This paper studies the volume, travel distance and starting mechanism of mass movement. 2.
The geological background is deposited into the distorted folding of the low-grade deteriorated rock unit to form the Haza Lakshmi-erheilie (HKS)(Calkins et al. , 1975;
Baigand Lawerance, 1987; Bassort et al. , 1988).
Thrust of main boundary (MBT)
Pan Gaal thrust (PT)
And the positive thrust of the Himalayas (HFT)
Fold in the study area to form an anti-formal structure (Wadia, 1931; Greco, 1991).
This structure is called HKS (
Baig and Lawrence, 1987).
The west limb of HKS is truncated by the Jhelum fault (JF)
And the fault of theMuzaffarabad (MF).
MBT, PT, JF and MF are key structural activity features in HKS (Fig. 2;
Armubruster and others. ,1978; Le Fort, 1975; Yeats et al. , 2006).
These features are the main source of seismic activity in HKS.
The rocks from the former Hanwu to the third discipline were exposed in HKS.
The rock units include the Hazara group, the Tanol Group of the former brianage, the Muzaffarabad Group of the Hanwu system, and the Panjal Group of the three stacks.
The sequence of limestone shale in the ancient system --
Deposit of the first, Murree, Kamlial and fourth series in the New World (Fig. 2).
The active MF rushed through the muzafalabad group, while the Jhelum fault rushed the hazara group of the pre-glacial system through the Murree Group of the middle world (
Baig and Lawrence, 1987).
The core HKS has sandstone, shale and clay rocks from the Murree group.
These deposits are located in the lower plate of MBT.
The Hazara group and the Panjal Group are located in the hanging wall block of the m B T.
The Hangu group, the Lockhart group, the Patara group, the Magara Mountain Group, the jogali group and the Kundana group are collectively referred to as the ancient world-Sequence of the New World.
The geological background of the study area is located near MBT and PT.
Panjal formation exists in-
Between MBTand PT (Fig. 2).
It was washed over the Murree formation (Khan,1994).
There is a sequence of highly broken, connected and cut along the rock of MBT.
The Panjal formation has fault contact at its bottom, and MBT is in contact with Murree formation at the upper part (Khan, 1994).
In the Newham Valley, Murree is widely distributed.
The Murree group was mainly exposed to river cutting and Neelum banks.
The fragility of these rocks and the weakening of the steep weakening slope control the beginning of mass movement near MBT.
The study area is located in the Neelum valley with undulating terrain and large slope.
From the topographic point of view, the research area is mainly hilly and mountainous areas, with valleys and plains, which are prone to large-scale movements due to unstable conditions of their rock blocks.
This instability is the main reason for the failure of many mass movements in the region.
Lifting range between 780-
2860 M, high angle slopes and steep cliffs are prominent features of the area.
The entire valley was drained by the Neelum River and itstributaries.
Because of the difficult terrain, the valley is covered by forests and the left bank is on the north side.
The right bank is South-
Cut down forests to a large extent.
The northern and southern climate of the Neelum valley is very different.
In addition, it varies greatly with altitude.
The north and northeast of the Neelum valley is very cold in winter, while the South stays cold in winter and medium hot in summer.
Climate issues in the region
Tropical highlands with an average rainfall of 1200
1300mm per year
Planning and Development Department, 2010).
Panjgran village is located in the Neelum valley in the North-
East of the city of muzafalabad, from which you can see the Neelen river passage from northeast to Northwest (Figs. 1 and 3).
The epicenter of the earthquake was about 7 km kilometers north.
On the west side of the village
The study area ranges from 850 to 1450 above sea level, while the panjgran mass movement is reactivated at 1450 above sea level and blocks many days on the main road of Neelum Valley (Fig. 3). Almost 300-
Due to the re-activation and movement of base slum materials, more than 400 kilometers of roads collapsed.
However, there is no causal relationship in this process.
Materials and methods of this study, on-site
5 Images, DEM and ArcGIS 9.
3, used together with ground field investigations to map and characterize the activated panjegeland mass movement.
Field trip in november2005.
10 and the mass movement is drawn on the scale of 1: 10.
A map containing detailed geotechnical information and longitudinal sections with geological features is prepared to identify the features and mechanisms of mass movement (Figs. 4 and 7).
Global Positioning System (GPS)
For location and elevation measurements.
Measuring the distance with a laser length meter (RIEGL FG21-HA)
For absolute horizontal measurement, the accuracy is-1 m.
Geological map of the study area prepared by Calkins and others. (1975)Hussain and others. (2004), Kaneda at al. (2008)
And Basharat and others. (2014)
Understand the structural features and geological units of the area. 4.
Description of Panjgran mass movement in the Neelum Valley area is located 35 km from the city of Muzaffarabad (Figs. 1, 3 and 4).
This is an ancient mass movement that the region restarted during the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Panjkot ridge (
34 degrees 25 '47' N;
73 degrees 37 '12' E, 1,450 above sea level asl)
It is the beginning of this mass movement.
Movement of the masses to the northeast (Figs. 4 and 5).
The Neelum River is often washed down on the slopes of the area and exceeds the slope.
This is one of the reasons for reducing the overall stability of the slope (Fig. 6a).
The landslide occurred in the Murree formation during the middle new century.
The rocks of the Murree group in the landslide area can be described as a series of alternating layers of sandstone, shale, clay and shale (
The main strata exposed are shale/Clay and sandstone and pink sandstone.
Shale/clay and shale are exposed along the right side to displaced substances along roads with expanded potential.
During the rainy season, argillaceusmaterial absorbs moisture and accelerates mass movement.
On the left side of the landslide, thin layers of sandstone and pink sandstone are exposed to form a series of deformed isooblique folds.
The middle part of the slide, above the road cut, also observed thin layers of sandstone and pink sandstone.
The main slopes of the landslide are formed by the destruction of the slopes and soil along the slopes.
The length of the main scarp variable along the perimeter of scarp.
However, the maximum distance of the material moving from the top of the main steep ridge is 150.
The landslide steep ridge is composed of cracked sandstone, pink sandstone, shale and clay rock from the Murree group in the new era.
There is evidence that the rock accumulates sandstone boulders at the bottom of the steep ridge.
The main body of the slide shows evidence of collapse failure with cracked curved surfaces.
The plunging material makes the apartment more and more scarce, and under it, the displaced material is squared into a secondary gap on the road section.
The slope damage on this side is related to the cliff damage in the study area.
In addition to the steep slopes of the material, the construction of neelum Road at the foot of the mass movement is the main driving force for the collapse.
The top of this massive movement is very steep above the main cliff and has agricultural land.
There are residential and agricultural terraces around the cliffs.
There is a dense forest in the north.
East of the cliff.
A cliff with cracks present and parallel to the western boundary of the landslide (Fig. 6b).
The length of the crack is about 1 ~ 5 m, width 8 ~ 12 cm.
The depth is about 1 m.
The steep slopes of the landslide are mainly composed of weathered sandstone, pink sandstone, shale and clay rock from the Murree group in the New Era (Fig. 6c).
The scarf on the west side is about 30 metres.
Measured from the top of the panjkot Ridge about 200 to the height of the steep ridge.
The scarf is round.
The Canyon of mass movement tilts towards the Neelum River. Figs.
4 and 7 show the geometry and the beginning of the panjegeland mass movement.
Surface area calculation 0. 39 km2 (Table 1).
The landslide began at asl, 1450 above sea level, from the Panjkot Ridge.
The length of the slide is about 950.
The maximum width of the landslide is about 650 m.
A rough estimate of the mean depth of mass movement is about 25 m (Table1).
The volume of the landslide is about 6. 75 x106m3.
The angle of the measurement Fahrboschung is about 35 O (Fig. 7).
The mass movement is classified as rotating sliding.
The formation of the slope tilts in the opposite direction of the hillside.
The initial movement of the slope is to collapse on the basis of material movement, forming weathered sandstone and shale.
In the upper part of the mass movement, the rockfall material is exposed to the steep ridge surface and separated from the bed rock moving in the downhill direction (Fig. 6c).
At the bottom of the cliff, the mass of the previous slump exists and extends to the entire width of the mass movement.
Rock debris in most areas covers the collapse.
However, the earthquake also occurred at the top of idge.
The lower part of the landslide beneath the main road is classified as a steep slope with a slope of more than 50 O (Figs. 5and 6a).
The main body of the landslide is mainly shale debris, which contains a wealth of compressed components of gravel, pebbles and sandstone.
Loose substances piled up along the traveling path increase the volume of the landslide.
Debris moves towards the valley.
However, a large amount of debris material was deposited in the middle and lower parts of the main slide.
In the middle part of the road above the road, thin sandstone and pink sandstone are exposed to debris materials, which are related to 4-
6 m thick debris piled up on it.
The area of the mass movement deposit is 0. 278 km2 (Table 1).
The mineral deposits are mainly composed of shale, clay, sandstone, siltstone and debris from the Murree formation in the middle world.
The size of the material varies from Boulder to sand.
The diameter of the boulder is greater than 1M3.
During the seasonal water level rise, substances deposited at the toes are transported by the river. Table 1.
Geometric features of the panjegeland mass movement caused by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake.
Geographical location of maximum estimated heightm)Width (m)depth (m)(m)
Panjgran1, 2016950. 02560035deg390, 0002780006. 755.
Conclusion in the earthquake in northern Pakistan, the panjegeland mass movement was reactivated.
Factors that control land activity include steep slopes, presence of clay materials, and bottom-cutting of rivers.
The collapse area divides the slope damage into rotating sliding.
The instability of the landslide area was caused by the weakening erosion of the Neelum River and the construction of the Neelum Road.
In addition, the mass movement is caused by a previous slump on a steep slope weakened by the Neelum River.
The main author of the manuscript is muhammad Basharat.
The map and figures were prepared by Asil Safez.
Khawaja Shoaib Ahmed conducted a field survey with Muhammad Basharat.
Mohammed zesanali reviewed and proofread the manuscript.
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