In high school, photosynthesis has always been one of the most confusing topics for students.
Really, it's not hard at all.
This seems hard because it doesn't have a clear step because almost all of the processes happen at the same time.
In this tutorial, I will explain photosynthesis from easy to difficult. The Easy Stuff-
Photosynthesis is the process of transforming light from plants (radiant)
Energy is converted into chemical energy, glucose.
Most of the oxygen we breathe is actually from-
However, this does not mean that these trees are useless and they prevent runoff and also the food and habitat of animals. -
Photosynthesis occurs in the mitochondrial organs of plants.
Because of the theory of symbiosis, the mitochondrial was once thought to be independent of plant cells.
The theory of symbiosis is proposed by marmargulis.
The theory suggests that, before being swallowed up by another cell, the pigment and mitochondrial were once living freely in the environment.
In other words, another cell "eats" The mitochondrial and uses its potential to generate energy to gain its own benefit.
The evidence of this theory includes :-70S ribosomes (
All the nuclear bodies belonging to the eukaryotic cells are 80 S)
The 70s nuclear body is the same as the 70s nuclear body in bacteria and other pronuclear cells, which indicates that the mitochondrial and mitochondrial were once the pronuclear cells swallowed up by another cell --
The triple membrane indicates that the golgi capsule that devours the pronuclear cells subsequently becomes a new membrane part of the mitochondrial
This is excellent evidence.
All bacteria have round DNA (
DNA containing only exome)
All cells have linear DNA. Exome).
The role of the Vivo Roplast body and the mitochondrial is as if it were a cell that works on its own without the need to take orders from the DNA within the nucleus.
In other words, imagine if a shark eats a cat while a cat lives in a dog.
There are some basic reactive substances and products in photosynthesis. Water (H20)-Sunlight (Photons)-
Carbon dioxide (CO2)Products-O2 (By-product)-NADPH/ATP (Light related)-Glucose (
Goals in light independent response that are not discussed here)-
We are now entering the actual process of photosynthesis.
Drink some grape juice or take a break.
Take some time to look at the picture above.
If you have a term you don't understand, Google it. Here we Go.
Light-dependent reactions occur in the membrane of the mitochondrial cystic membrane and the cystic cavity.
A stack of Thylakoids is called grana.
When we zoom in on the membrane of one of the pancake stacks, we get something that looks like the image above.
The accumulation of chlorophyll, auxiliary pigments and electronic substances constantly impacts the capsule (grana).
We are now in the light system (
Because it was discovered for the second time, it was called the light system 2).
When light hits the capsule (pigment), the chlorophyll absorbs the energy of the photon.
The red and blue light is absorbed by bluerophyll, reflecting the green light, which is why we see it.
In autumn, auxiliary pigments can be seen in vibrant arrays of red and yellow, which also absorb light, but in small quantities.
The amount it absorbs is transferred to the chlorophyll, and once it absorbs enough energy, it pops up two electrons.
To supplement these electrons, the chlorophyll uses light (photons)
Release water into oxygen and electrons
Then oxygen is released as.
Electrons are made up of products and chlorophyll.
The kept electrons are stored in peas (
Primary electron receptor)
It is a protein that can hold electrons.
Electronic transmission chain (ETC)
After the electrons pop out of the chlorophyll and are held by the primary electron receptor, it immediately moves down ETC (
Electronic transmission chain
A protein called pigmentation.
In this case, it is a cell pigment.
The cell pigment transmits electrons through the power cord like electricity.
As we all know, when energy is delivered in one direction, it will produce energy;
However, how it is done is still not understood.
In any case, the electron moves along the electronic transmission chain;
At the same time, motion generates a little energy in the form of ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate)
It activates the proton pump to pump hydrogen ions into the cavity of the class.
From here: there are two processes happening at the same time-
Two roads, two different journeys. 1.
The continuation of hydrogen.
Electrons moving down along ETC end 1 hydrogen in the optical system to continue the lumen that has just been pumped into the class.
Everything is concentrated from high to low.
When hydrogen is pumped into the tube cavity of the class, the concentration of hydrogen ions is higher than that outside the tube cavity.
Then, the hydrogen ion flow throws out a channel protein called atp enzyme, namely atp enzyme.
This produces a large amount of ATP.
This is one of the goals of light independent reaction.
Electrons moving down along ETC end in Optical System 1, and electrons after the end of optical system 2 end in Optical System 1.
The chlorophyll in the light system 1 does not need to split the water to get the electrons because one of the light system 2 can be used.
In any case, electrons are then moved to the primary electron receptor (
Like in Photosystem 2)
Along the electronic transmission chain (
Like in Photosystem 2).
Now, electrons move to a protein called ferredoxin that binds NADH, electrons, and a hydrogen to produce nad.
In the independent reaction of light, another goal is to restore.
ATP and nad produced in light independent reactions of photosynthesis are subsequently used for light-
I will discuss the independent response in the next guide.